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Transcript
Chapter 1
Human Anatomy and Physiology
 Anatomy:
 the study of body structures and their relationships
 Static within a species
 Physiology:
 the study of the functions of body structures
 Dynamic within a species
Subdivisions
Anatomy
Physiology
 Gross anatomy
 Regional: area
 Systemic: organ systems
 Surface: internal structures
through skin
 Microscopic anatomy
 Cytology: cells
 Histology: tissues
 Embryology: before birth
 Neurophysiology
 Others
 Pathophysiology
 Cardiovascular physiology
 Renal Physiology
 Others
Life is an Emergent Property
 Novelty with increased
complexity
 Chemical level
 Atoms
 Molecules
 Organelles




Cellular level
Tissue level
Organ level
Organ system level
 Listed in fig 1.3
 Organismal level
Organ Systems
ORGAN SYSTEM COMPONENTS
FUNCTIONS
Integumentary
Skin, hair, nails
Protection
Skeletal
Bones
Support/movement
Nervous
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense
organs
Control and
communication
Muscular
Muscles
Movement
Endocrine
Hormones and associated glands
Homeostasis
Cardiovascular
Heart, blood vessels, blood
Transport of substances
Lymphatic
Lymph vessels and lymph nodes
Transport, immunity
Respiratory
Nose, trachea, lungs
Transport of gases
Digestive
Mouth, esophagus, stomach,
intestines
Energy acquisition and
food processing
Urinary
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Water balance
Reproduction
Gonads
Propogation
Life’s Essentials
 Maintain boundaries
 Move
 Respond to environment
 Digestion
 Metabolism
 Excretion
 Reproduce
 Grow
Survival Essentials
 Nutrients
 Fuel for the cells
 Oxygen
 Energy release is an oxidative process
 Water
 Facilitates reactions and excretions/secretions
 Normal body temperature
 Regulate metabolic reactions
 Atmospheric pressure
 Corresponds with gas exchange w/I cells
 Adequate amounts of above maintain a healthy state
Homeostasis
 Ability of the body to maintain equilibrium internally
despite a continually changing world externally
 Dynamic state of equilibrium
 3 components
 Receptor (afferent)
 Control center (set point)
 Effector (efferent)
 Illness & disease due to
homeostatic imbalances
 Occurrences increase with age
 Disruptions in feedback
Feedback
 Negative
 Most homeostatic mechanisms
 Turn off or slow original stimuli
 Stabilizes
 Body temperature, heart and
breathing rate, & blood glucose
 Positive
 Increases the original stimuli
 Oxytocin (labor) and blood clotting
Anatomical Position
 Standing tall with upper limbs at sides
and face, palms and toes forward
 Reference position when describing
body part locations
 Left and right is specimen’s
 Variations for bipeds and quadrupeds
Anatomical Regions
Anatomical Directions
 Superior/ inferior
 Cranial/caudal
 Ventral/ dorsal
 Anterior/ posterior
 Medial/ lateral
 Intermediate/ proximal/
distal
 Superficial/ deep
 External/ internal
 Supine/ prone
 Ipsilateral/ contralateral
Study tip: pick two structures on self and describe as many ways as possible
Body Planes are Like Breads
 Sagittal section:
divides the body
longitudinally into left
and right
 Midsagittal: equal parts
 Parasagittal: off midline
 e.g.: hotdog bun
 Frontal (coronal) section:
divides anterior and posterior
 e.g.: loaf of bread
 Transverse (cross) section:
divides superior and inferior
 Oblique section: diagonal cuts
 e.g.: hamburger bun or bagel
Body Cavities
 Dorsal
 Cranial: brain
 Vertebral: spinal cord
 Ventral
 Thoracic


Left & right pleura
Mediastinum (pericardial)
 Abdominopelvic
 No real separation
 Protection differences
 Diaphragm divides
Serous Membranes
 Double-layer membrane
surrounding serous fluid
 Reduces friction; lubricates
 Line walls and organs of
ventral body cavities
 Parietal serosa lines walls
 Visceral serosa lines organs
(viscera)
 Named for associated organs
 Never exposed to external
environment
Other Body Cavities
 Open to environment (generally)
Abdominopelvic Subdivisions
 Epigastric
 Umbilical
Regions (9)
Quadrants (4)
 Hypogastric
 Hypochondriac
 Lumbar
 Inguinal
 Anatomists use; references location
and orientation of internal organs
 Clinicians use; references to describe
pain, tenderness, and injuries