* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Chapter 1Intro
Document related concepts
An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Introduction Biology is the study of life; one of its goals is to discover the unity and patterns that underlie the diversity of living organisms. All living things, from single cells to large multicellular organisms, perform the same basic functions: They respond to changes in their environment They grow ande reproduce to create future generation; They are capable of producing movement; and they absorb materials from the environment. Organisms absorb and consume oxygen during respiration, and they discharge waste products during excretion. Digestion occur in specialized areas of the body to break down complex foods. Circulation forms an internal transportation system between areas of the body. Anatomy Anatomy is the study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between body parts. Physiology is the study of how living organisms perform vital functions. All specific functions are performed by specific structures. Microscopic anatomy The boundaries of microscopic anatomy are established by the equipment used. Cytology analyzes the internal structure of individual cells. Histology examines tissues. Tissues form organs, anatomical units with specific functions. Gross anatomy Gross anatomy considers features visible without a microscope. It features surface anatomy, regional anatomy and systemic anatomy Physiology Human physiology is the study fo the functions of the human body. It is based on cell physiology, the sutdy of the functions of living cells. Special physiology studies the physiology of specific organs. System physiology considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems. Pathological physiology studies the effects of diseases of organ or system functions. Levels of organization Anatomical structures and physiological mechanisms are arranged in a series of interacting levels of organization. An introduction to Organ Systems The major organs of the human body are arranged into 11 organs systems. The organ systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. Homeostasis and System Integration Homeostasis is a tendency for physiological systems to stabilize internal conditions Through homeostatic regulation these systems adjust to preserve homeostasis. Homeostatic Regulation Homeostatic regulation usually involves a receptor sensitive to a particular stimulus and an effector whose activity affect the same stimulus. Negative Feedback Is a corrective mechanism involving an action that directly opposes a variation from normal limits. Positive Feedback The initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces the stimulus. Homeostasis and Disease Symptoms of disease appear when failure of homeostatic regulation causes organ systems to malfunction. The Language of Anatomy Standard anatomical illustrations show the body in the anatomical position. If the figure is shown lying down, it can be either supine or prone. . Abdominopelvic quadrants and abdominopelvicc regions represent two different approaches to describing anatomical regions of the body. The use of special directional terms provides clarity when describing anatomical structures. Sectional anatomy The three sectional planes (frontal, sagittal, and transverse) describe relationships between the parts of the threedimensional human body. Body Cavities Body cavities protect delicate organs and permit changes in the size and shape of visceral organs. Dorsal body cavity contains the cranial cavity, and spinal cavity. Ventral body cavity surrounds developing respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive urinary and reproductive organs The diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity into the superior thoracic and inferior abdominopelvic cavities. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a pericardial cavity The abdominopelvic cavity consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity Imaging Important radiological procedures include X-rays, CT scans, MRI and ultrasound. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages.