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Transcript
An Introduction to Anatomy
and Physiology
Introduction

Biology is the study of life; one of its goals
is to discover the unity and patterns that
underlie the diversity of living organisms.

All living things, from single cells to large
multicellular organisms, perform the same basic
functions:



They respond to changes in their environment
They grow ande reproduce to create future
generation;
They are capable of producing movement; and they
absorb materials from the environment.
Organisms absorb and consume oxygen
during respiration, and they discharge
waste products during excretion.
 Digestion occur in specialized areas of
the body to break down complex foods.
 Circulation forms an internal
transportation system between areas of
the body.

Anatomy
Anatomy is the study of internal and
external structure and the physical
relationships between body parts.
 Physiology is the study of how living
organisms perform vital functions.
 All specific functions are performed by
specific structures.

Microscopic anatomy
The boundaries of microscopic anatomy
are established by the equipment used.
 Cytology analyzes the internal structure of
individual cells.
 Histology examines tissues. Tissues form
organs, anatomical units with specific
functions.

Gross anatomy
Gross anatomy considers features visible
without a microscope.
 It features surface anatomy, regional
anatomy and systemic anatomy

Physiology





Human physiology is the study fo the functions
of the human body.
It is based on cell physiology, the sutdy of the
functions of living cells.
Special physiology studies the physiology of
specific organs.
System physiology considers all aspects of the
function of specific organ systems.
Pathological physiology studies the effects of
diseases of organ or system functions.
Levels of organization

Anatomical structures and physiological
mechanisms are arranged in a series of
interacting levels of organization.
An introduction to Organ
Systems
The major organs of the human body are
arranged into 11 organs systems.
 The organ systems of the human body
are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular,
nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular,
lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary
and reproductive systems.

Homeostasis and System
Integration
Homeostasis is a tendency for
physiological systems to stabilize internal
conditions
 Through homeostatic regulation these
systems adjust to preserve homeostasis.

Homeostatic Regulation

Homeostatic regulation usually involves a
receptor sensitive to a particular stimulus
and an effector whose activity affect the
same stimulus.
Negative Feedback

Is a corrective mechanism involving an
action that directly opposes a variation
from normal limits.
Positive Feedback

The initial
stimulus produces
a response that
reinforces the
stimulus.
Homeostasis and Disease

Symptoms of disease appear when failure
of homeostatic regulation causes organ
systems to malfunction.
The Language of Anatomy
Standard anatomical illustrations show
the body in the anatomical position.
 If the figure is shown lying down, it can be
either supine or prone.

.

Abdominopelvic
quadrants and
abdominopelvicc
regions represent two
different approaches
to describing
anatomical regions of
the body.

The use of special directional terms
provides clarity when describing
anatomical structures.
Sectional anatomy

The three sectional
planes (frontal,
sagittal, and
transverse) describe
relationships between
the parts of the threedimensional human
body.
Body Cavities
Body cavities protect delicate organs and
permit changes in the size and shape of
visceral organs.
 Dorsal body cavity contains the cranial
cavity, and spinal cavity.
 Ventral body cavity surrounds developing
respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive
urinary and reproductive organs

The diaphragm divides the ventral body
cavity into the superior thoracic and
inferior abdominopelvic cavities.
 The thoracic cavity contains two pleural
cavities and a pericardial cavity
 The abdominopelvic cavity consists of the
abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity

Imaging
Important radiological procedures include
X-rays, CT scans, MRI and ultrasound.
 Each technique has its advantages and
disadvantages.
