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Transcript
Chem notes 1 :
Atomic Structure
Atomic Structure:
There are 4 quantum numbers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Principle Quantum number (the one covered in the a-lvl)
Angular momentum quantum number
Magnetic quantum number
Spin projection quantum number
These 4 quantum numbers are used to describe the electrons of an atom.




The principle quantum number [n] refers to the electron shell that the electron exists in.
The angular momentum number [l] is the orbital of the electron i.e. the s-orbital is represented
by 0, the p-orbital by 1, the d-orbital by 2 and so on.
The magnetic quantum number [ml] is the sub-orbital or cloud of the electron. It ranges from –l
to l.
The spin projection quantum number [ms] is the spin of the electron within the sub-orbital. It
1
can be ± 2.
The use of four quantum numbers can be demonstrated in the electron-in-box diagram:
Oxygen :
Thus, we can see that the 4 quantum numbers will identify individual electrons.
Pauli Exclusion Principle states that:
No 2 electrons in the same atom have the same 4 quantum numbers.