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Chem notes 1 : Atomic Structure Atomic Structure: There are 4 quantum numbers. 1. 2. 3. 4. Principle Quantum number (the one covered in the a-lvl) Angular momentum quantum number Magnetic quantum number Spin projection quantum number These 4 quantum numbers are used to describe the electrons of an atom. The principle quantum number [n] refers to the electron shell that the electron exists in. The angular momentum number [l] is the orbital of the electron i.e. the s-orbital is represented by 0, the p-orbital by 1, the d-orbital by 2 and so on. The magnetic quantum number [ml] is the sub-orbital or cloud of the electron. It ranges from –l to l. The spin projection quantum number [ms] is the spin of the electron within the sub-orbital. It 1 can be ± 2. The use of four quantum numbers can be demonstrated in the electron-in-box diagram: Oxygen : Thus, we can see that the 4 quantum numbers will identify individual electrons. Pauli Exclusion Principle states that: No 2 electrons in the same atom have the same 4 quantum numbers.