... etc. (both for fixed and moving reference
Dirac Notation in Mathematica
... The operator and eigenket templates will appear. Next press [TAB] several times till the first place holder (square) is
selected. Then press the keys:
Finally press at the same time the keys [SHIFT] and [ENTER] to evaluate. The result of the calculation is the s ...
9. QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS 9. Quantum chromodynamics 1
... and in the review on “Quark Masses”). Terms up to c4ℓ are to be found in Refs. 12, 13.
Numerically, when one chooses µR = mh , the matching is a modest effect, owing to the
zero value for the c10 coefficient. Relations between nf and (nf +2) flavors where the two
heavy flavors are close in mass are ...
`Nonclassical` states in quantum optics: a `squeezed` review of the
... operator (see equation (21)). For the initial vacuum state,
|ψ0 = |0, the state |ψ̃0 (15) is exactly the squeezed state
in modern terminology, whereas by choosing other initial
states one can obtain various generalized squeezed states. In
particular, the choice |ψn = |n results in the family ...
... Quantum computing is a very new, fascinating, promising and puzzling scientific adventure in which we witness a merging and mutual influence of two of the most significant
developments in science and technology of 20th century—quantum mechanics and computing. An adventure that may lead not only to t ...
Quantum conditional probability - E
... are interpreted as projection operators in an abstract Hilbert space, as the physical values
associated to them, or as measurement outcomes, both from a synchronic and a diachronic
perspective. The only notion of conditional probability the Lüders rule defines is a purely
instrumental one. In additi ...
Cavity optomechanics - Institute for Theoretical Physics II
... setups lie somewhat outside the scope of the concepts presented
in this review, but we emphasize that they are very promising for
applications due to their large bandwidth.
Optomechanical coupling has also been realized using
microfabricated superconducting resonators, by embedding
a nanomechanical ...
Kondo Effect in Mesoscopic Quantum Dots
... reservoir, labeled by their momentum and spin. The second term is the quantized energy
of localized electrons in a single spin-degenerate state near EF – all other quantum dot
levels are assumed to be either completely full (well below EF) or completely empty
(well above EF), and hence can be safely ...
Non-collinear Magnetoelectronics Abstract
... iron, cobalt or the magnetically soft permalloy (Py), a Ni/Fe alloy. The normal
metals are typically Al, Cu or Cr, where the spin-density wave in the latter is usually disregarded in studies of transport. These metals cannot be grown as perfectly
as strongly bonded tetrahedral semiconductors; moreov ...
The Second Law of Quantum Complexity
... Note that the average of the Hamiltonian itself is zero since all the terms in H have zero
trace. We will use the notation E to represent the energy relative to the ground state.
This is not zero. The variance of E is the same as the variance of H.
The normalization of J is a convention related to t ...
... Quantum computing is a potential. There are already results convincingly demonstrating that for some important practical problems quantum computers are theoretically exponentially more powerful than classical computers. Such results, as Shor's
factorization algorithm, can be seen as apt killers for ...
Scalar field theory
In theoretical physics, scalar field theory can refer to a classical or quantum theory of scalar fields. A scalar field is invariant under any Lorentz transformation.The only fundamental scalar quantum field that has been observed in nature is the Higgs field. However, scalar quantum fields feature in the effective field theory descriptions of many physical phenomena. An example is the pion, which is actually a pseudoscalar.Since they do not involve polarization complications, scalar fields are often the easiest to appreciate second quantization through. For this reason, scalar field theories are often used for purposes of introduction of novel concepts and techniques.The signature of the metric employed below is (+, −, −, −).