Magnetic and structural properties of isolated and assembled clusters
... The main sources of magnetism in atoms, clusters and solids are the currents associated with the
electronic motion (orbital magnetism) and the intrinsic angular momentum of the electrons (spin
magnetism). These properties have a quantum mechanical nature and cannot be regarded as the
superposition o ...
Relativistic effects in atomic and molecular properties
... Until the seventies of the 20th century it was generally accepted that for a description of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules and, therefore, for the whole chemistry and for the substantial part of physics, relativistic theory is not needed. According to Sheldon L. Glashow ,
Nobel P ...
Abstract book final - International Conference on Strongly
... (i) Based on a microscopic model including both electron correlation and spin-orbit
coupling, it was shown in Ref.  that the local electric polarization induced between
two spins can be nonvanishing when the spins are neither ferromagnetic nor
antiferromagnetic, i.e., non-collinear. This “local r ...
Engineering a Robust Quantum Spin Hall State in Graphene via
... orbitals carry higher angular momentum, spin-flip processes which do affect the Dirac points will generically
appear. The induced Rashba terms may still be subdominant, although whether this is the case depends on details
of the Hamiltonian, unlike the situation for p orbitals.
In contrast, Sz -cons ...
Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 176, 384 (2008).
... change the underlying state, quantum mechanics allows for more complex behavior. In three-dimensional quantum systems the exchange of two identical particles
may result in a sign-change of the wavefunction which distinguishes fermions from
bosons. Two-dimensional quantum systems – such as electrons ...
Electromagnetic Field Angular Momentum of a Charge at Rest in a
... If we suppose the inﬁnite solenoid to be the limit of a long, but ﬁnite solenoid, we could
imagine bringing charge q to, say, distance a from the axis at the center of the solenoid by
starting it on the axis but well outside the solenoid, moving it along the axis to the center
of the solenoid, and ﬁ ...
Investigation of the magnetic and electronic structure
... or FeStar produced by Saalfrank et al. (2001, 2006) attached from Takacs
(2005). Fe: Green; O: Red; C: Black; N: Blue; H: White. . . . . . . . . .
XAS and XMCD analysis on Fe4 . Absorption spectra (white dots: µ+ ; black
dots: µ− ) and dichroic signal (black solid line) at T = 0.75 K and B = 3.0
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.Spin is one of two types of angular momentum in quantum mechanics, the other being orbital angular momentum. The orbital angular momentum operator is the quantum-mechanical counterpart to the classical notion of angular momentum: it arises when a particle executes a rotating or twisting trajectory (such as when an electron orbits a nucleus). The existence of spin angular momentum is inferred from experiments, such as the Stern–Gerlach experiment, in which particles are observed to possess angular momentum that cannot be accounted for by orbital angular momentum alone.In some ways, spin is like a vector quantity; it has a definite magnitude, and it has a ""direction"" (but quantization makes this ""direction"" different from the direction of an ordinary vector). All elementary particles of a given kind have the same magnitude of spin angular momentum, which is indicated by assigning the particle a spin quantum number.The SI unit of spin is the joule-second, just as with classical angular momentum. In practice, however, it is written as a multiple of the reduced Planck constant ħ, usually in natural units, where the ħ is omitted, resulting in a unitless number. Spin quantum numbers are unitless numbers by definition.When combined with the spin-statistics theorem, the spin of electrons results in the Pauli exclusion principle, which in turn underlies the periodic table of chemical elements.Wolfgang Pauli was the first to propose the concept of spin, but he did not name it. In 1925, Ralph Kronig, George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit at Leiden University suggested a physical interpretation of particles spinning around their own axis. The mathematical theory was worked out in depth by Pauli in 1927. When Paul Dirac derived his relativistic quantum mechanics in 1928, electron spin was an essential part of it.