Rare $ B $ Decays as Tests of the Standard Model

... In the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics the only flavour-violating interaction is the weak charged current. The other fundamental interactions – electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak neutral current – are all flavour-conserving. The probability for changes between the differ ...

... In the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics the only flavour-violating interaction is the weak charged current. The other fundamental interactions – electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak neutral current – are all flavour-conserving. The probability for changes between the differ ...

from its mathematical description to its experimental

... Quantum Mechanics was born as a framework to describe physical phenomena at the atomic level. Amazingly successful, this theory was rapidly applied to a lot of scenarios such as atomic emission, particle scattering, and radiation-matter interaction [ER85, FLS65]. The first strong criticism to quantu ...

... Quantum Mechanics was born as a framework to describe physical phenomena at the atomic level. Amazingly successful, this theory was rapidly applied to a lot of scenarios such as atomic emission, particle scattering, and radiation-matter interaction [ER85, FLS65]. The first strong criticism to quantu ...

Fano resonances in nanoscale structures

... paper appears to owe its success to accidental circumstances, such as the timing of its publication and some successful features of its formulation. The timing coincided with a rapid expansion of atomic and condensed matter spectroscopy, both optical and collisional. The formulation drew attention t ...

... paper appears to owe its success to accidental circumstances, such as the timing of its publication and some successful features of its formulation. The timing coincided with a rapid expansion of atomic and condensed matter spectroscopy, both optical and collisional. The formulation drew attention t ...

Stochastic resonance - Physik Uni-Augsburg

... Having elucidated the main physical ideas of stochastic resonance in the preceding section, we next define the observables that actually quantify the effect. These observables should be physically motivated, easily measurable, and/or be of technical relevance. In the seminal paper by Benzi et al. (1 ...

... Having elucidated the main physical ideas of stochastic resonance in the preceding section, we next define the observables that actually quantify the effect. These observables should be physically motivated, easily measurable, and/or be of technical relevance. In the seminal paper by Benzi et al. (1 ...

The electronic properties of graphene

... 2007兲. It has also been suggested that Coulomb interactions are considerably enhanced in smaller geometries, such as graphene quantum dots 共Milton Pereira et al., 2007兲, leading to unusual Coulomb blockade effects 共Geim and Novoselov, 2007兲 and perhaps to magnetic phenomena such as the Kondo effect. ...

... 2007兲. It has also been suggested that Coulomb interactions are considerably enhanced in smaller geometries, such as graphene quantum dots 共Milton Pereira et al., 2007兲, leading to unusual Coulomb blockade effects 共Geim and Novoselov, 2007兲 and perhaps to magnetic phenomena such as the Kondo effect. ...

Methodological Advances in Theoretical - ETH E

... Spectroscopy is an essential tool for the identification and characterization of molecules in the daily work of chemists. In this regard, the molecular systems studied nowadays are often quite challenging due to, e.g., their large size or their complicated spatial structure, which makes it difficult ...

... Spectroscopy is an essential tool for the identification and characterization of molecules in the daily work of chemists. In this regard, the molecular systems studied nowadays are often quite challenging due to, e.g., their large size or their complicated spatial structure, which makes it difficult ...

Particle Detectors in Curved Space Quantum Field Theory

... acceleration radiation is also discussed in some of these chapters. By this stage, it will be quite evident that each detector model responds in a fundamentally different way when placed in the same circumstances. Thus, any attempt to directly compare their responses will be fruitless. In Chapter 8 ...

... acceleration radiation is also discussed in some of these chapters. By this stage, it will be quite evident that each detector model responds in a fundamentally different way when placed in the same circumstances. Thus, any attempt to directly compare their responses will be fruitless. In Chapter 8 ...

Quantum Wavepacket Dynamics in Molecular and Trapped Ion Systems Dong Wang

... pattern is very stable in time [25]. All examples we mentioned above belong to this type. The partial wavepackets are propagating in the same direction and have the same momentum. The other type of interference is observed between counterpropagaing partial wavepackets. The interference takes place o ...

... pattern is very stable in time [25]. All examples we mentioned above belong to this type. The partial wavepackets are propagating in the same direction and have the same momentum. The other type of interference is observed between counterpropagaing partial wavepackets. The interference takes place o ...

tgd as a generalized number theory

... 1.1.4 Zero energy ontology, cognition, and intentionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.5 What number theoretical universality might mean? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.6 p-Adicization by algebraic continuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7 For the reader . . . . . . ...

... 1.1.4 Zero energy ontology, cognition, and intentionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.5 What number theoretical universality might mean? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.6 p-Adicization by algebraic continuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.7 For the reader . . . . . . ...

Exact Results for Thermodynamics of the Hydrogen Plasma

... for pressure and free energy up to order ρ 2 at fixed non-zero temperature, in a closed analytical form (see also Ref. [39]). When ρ goes to zero, the system becomes fully ionized (see Ref. [43] for a rigorous proof). At order ρ 2 , the recombination of a small fraction of charges into hydrogen atom ...

... for pressure and free energy up to order ρ 2 at fixed non-zero temperature, in a closed analytical form (see also Ref. [39]). When ρ goes to zero, the system becomes fully ionized (see Ref. [43] for a rigorous proof). At order ρ 2 , the recombination of a small fraction of charges into hydrogen atom ...

QUANTUM COMPUTING

... (Horodecki, 1991, and Landauer, 1991, 1995), or even that information is deeper than realitya substance that is more fundamental than matter and energy. ...

... (Horodecki, 1991, and Landauer, 1991, 1995), or even that information is deeper than realitya substance that is more fundamental than matter and energy. ...

# Renormalization group

In theoretical physics, the renormalization group (RG) refers to a mathematical apparatus that allows systematic investigation of the changes of a physical system as viewed at different distance scales. In particle physics, it reflects the changes in the underlying force laws (codified in a quantum field theory) as the energy scale at which physical processes occur varies, energy/momentum and resolution distance scales being effectively conjugate under the uncertainty principle (cf. Compton wavelength).A change in scale is called a ""scale transformation"". The renormalization group is intimately related to ""scale invariance"" and ""conformal invariance"", symmetries in which a system appears the same at all scales (so-called self-similarity). (However, note that scale transformations are included in conformal transformations, in general: the latter including additional symmetry generators associated with special conformal transformations.)As the scale varies, it is as if one is changing the magnifying power of a notional microscope viewing the system. In so-called renormalizable theories, the system at one scale will generally be seen to consist of self-similar copies of itself when viewed at a smaller scale, with different parameters describing the components of the system. The components, or fundamental variables, may relate to atoms, elementary particles, atomic spins, etc. The parameters of the theory typically describe the interactions of the components. These may be variable ""couplings"" which measure the strength of various forces, or mass parameters themselves. The components themselves may appear to be composed of more of the self-same components as one goes to shorter distances.For example, in quantum electrodynamics (QED), an electron appears to be composed of electrons, positrons (anti-electrons) and photons, as one views it at higher resolution, at very short distances. The electron at such short distances has a slightly different electric charge than does the ""dressed electron"" seen at large distances, and this change, or ""running,"" in the value of the electric charge is determined by the renormalization group equation.