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ESSAY QUESTIONS
1. Analyze the two main theories of how to reward. Which is the best and why?
2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the utilitarian theoryS of punishment?
3. Retributivism justifies punishment on the basis of desert. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of the approach?
4. Is restitution a plausible way of punishing? Explain any difficulties with this view and
advantages.
5. Is a synthesis of these theories possible? Discuss with reference to all of the models
introduced in this chapter.
6. Outline John Rawls’ theory of justice. How would you critique it?
TRUE/FALSE
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
How we dispense good or bad, reward and punishment is called distributive justice.
Justice is concerned with the future – what people will do.
Justice should be collective rather than individual.
There is only one way of distributing rewards.
The retributivist believes that the results are what really count.
All that counts for the utilitarians is whether rewards or punishments are deserved.
John Rawls believes that human rights are natural rights..
Restitution is the idea that punishment should be stopped or “rested.”
One of the weaknesses of deterrence theories is that if they work they work just as well on
the innocent as well as the guilty.
10. Someone who synthesizes all the theories of rewards and punishments together is known as a
nephrologist.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
11. As a _________ you would allocate rewards and punishments based on results.
a) Libertarian
b) Republican
c) Utilitarian
d) Kantian
12. “An eye for an eye” fits with a _______ theory of punishment.
a) utilitarian
b) conservative
c) retributivist
d) distributivist
13. Why, according to the retributivists, should people be punished?
a) Revenge
b) Utility
c) Deterrence
d) Desert
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