* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
CHAPTER 7 â REWARD AND PUNISHMENT Chapter Summary Definition of Key Terms Reward and punishment in relation to justice Reward and punishment will be discussed in the context of justice. Elements of justice Several elements of justice apply to reward and punishment. What justice involves How should we distribute justice, i.e. good and bad, right and wrong, reward and punishment on a just and fair basis? Concern with past events Justice concerned with the past, what has been done rather than what might or perhaps will be done? Rewards and punishments, of course, affect the future. Individualistic rather than collectivistic Individuals rather than groups are punished or rewarded. Punishing groups can lead to injustice. Comparative injustice Deals with comparisons of treatment in terms of rewards and punishment. Reward Rewards can be distributed in four ways: 1. Equally without regard to ability or merit 2. According to ability 3. According to merit or desert 4. According to needs Criteria for rewarding people Egalitarian criterion or equal distribution of goods and rewards Equal distribution without regard to ability or merit. Example of Swedish hospital and kidney dialysis. How to decide who gets dialysis when need surpasses ability to provide. What criteria are applicable? Is a lottery the most fair and ethical means of deciding? Problems with equality of distribution Egalitarian method ignores merit, ability, need, etc. Should those with differing aptitudes, skills, abilities be treated the same? Equality of consideration if they have other Attributes â race, sex, religion, age, handicap â to what extent are these important factors? Are people really equal? 46 Copyright Â© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.