Download Lecture #6 Date ________ Chapter 15~ The Chromosomal

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Transcript
Lecture #6
Date ________
 Chapter 15~
The Chromosomal
Basis of Inheritance
The Chromosomal Theory
of Inheritance
 Genes have specific
loci on chromosomes
and chromosomes
undergo segregation
and independent
assortment
Chromosomal Linkage
 Morgan
 Drosophilia melanogaster
 XX (female) vs. XY (male)
 Sex-linkage: genes located on a
sex chromosome
 Linked genes: genes located on
the same chromosome that tend
to be inherited together
Genetic recombination
 Crossing over
Genes that DO NOT assort
independently of each other
 Genetic maps
The further apart 2 genes are,
the higher the probability that a
crossover will occur between them
and therefore the higher the
recombination frequency
 Linkage maps
Genetic map based on
recombination frequencies
Human sex-linkage
 SRY gene: gene on Y chromosome that triggers the development of testes
 Fathers= pass X-linked alleles to all daughters only (but not to sons)
 Mothers= pass X-linked alleles to both sons & daughters
 Sex-Linked Disorders: Color-blindness; Duchenne muscular dystropy (MD);
hemophilia

 X-inactivation: 2nd X chromosome in females condenses into a Barr body (e.g.,
tortoiseshell gene gene in cats)
Chromosomal errors, I
 Nondisjunction:
members of a pair of
homologous chromosomes do
not separate properly during
meiosis I or sister chromatids
fail to separate during meiosis
II
 Aneuploidy: chromosome
number is abnormal
• Monosomy~ missing
chromosome
• Trisomy~ extra
chromosome (Down
syndrome)
• Polyploidy~ extra sets
of chromosomes
Chromosomal errors, II
 Alterations of chromosomal structure:
 Deletion: removal of a chromosomal segment
 Duplication: repeats a chromosomal segment
 Inversion: segment reversal in a chromosome
 Translocation: movement of a chromosomal segment to another
Genomic imprinting
 Def: a parental effect on
gene expression
 Identical alleles may have
different effects on
offspring, depending on
whether they arrive in the
zygote via the ovum or via
the sperm.
 Fragile X syndrome:
higher prevalence of
disorder and retardation in
males