Download Keystone Vocabulary 61-70

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Keystone Vocabulary #61-70
61. Chromosomes: A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins that are found in the
nucleus of cells.
62. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): A biological macromolecule that encodes the genetic
information for living organisms and is capable of self replication and the synthesis of
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
63. Homologous Structure: A physical characteristic in different organisms that is similar
because it was inherited from a common ancestor.
64. Interphase: The longest lasting phase of the cell cycle in which a cell performs the majority
of its functions, such as preparing for nuclear division and cytokinesis.
65. Allele: A variation of a gene’s nucleotide sequence. (an alternative form of a gene)
66. Allele Frequency: The measure of the relative frequency of an allele at a genetic locus in a
population: expressed as a proportion or percentage.
67. Crossing over: An exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during
anaphase I of meiosis; contributes to the genetic variability in gametes and ultimately in
68. Meiosis: A two-phase nuclear division that results in the eventual production of gametes
with half the normal number of chromosomes.
69. Gamete: A specialized cell (egg or sperm) used in sexual reproduction containing half the
normal number of chromosomes of a somatic cell.
70. Nucleus: A membrane bound organelle in eukaryotic cells functioning to maintain the
integrity or the genetic material and through the expression of that material, controlling and
regulating cellular activities.