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Transcript
BEHAVIORISM
LEARNING
THEORY
By : Habibi
• According to the behaviorists, learning
can be defined as “the relatively
permanent change in behavior brought
about as a result of experience or
practice.”
Behaviorists recognize that learning is an internal
event. However, it is not recognized as learning until it
is displayed by overt behavior.
The focus of the behavioral
approach is on how the
environment impacts overt
behavior.
behavior
environment
behaviorism
• The behavioral learning theory is
represented as an S-R paradigm. The
organism is treated as a “black box.” We
only know what is going on inside the box
by the organism’s overt behavior.
Stimulus
(S)
Organism
(O)
Response
(R)
• Notice that the behaviorists are only
interested in that aspect of feedback that
connects directly to overt behavior.
Behaviorists are not
interested in the
conscious decision of the
individual to disrupt,
modify, or go against the
conditioning process.
Classical Conditioning
Theory
Classical conditioning was the first type of
learning to be discovered and studied
within the behaviorist tradition (hence the
name classical).
The major theorist in the development of
classical conditioning is Ivan Pavlov, a
Russian scientist trained in biology and
medicine
Pavlov was studying the digestive system of
dogs and became intrigued with his
observation that dogs deprived of food
began to salivate when one of his assistants
walked into the room.
He began to investigate this phenomena and
established the laws of classical
conditioning.
Example:
• Child is harassed at school
• Child feels bad when harassed
• Child associates being harassed and school
• Child begins to feel bad when she
thinks of school
Operant Conditioning
The response is made first,
then reinforcement
follows.
+
_
Reinforcement
Punishment
Add something to the
environment in order
to increase behavior
Add something to the
environment in order
to decrease behavior
Subtract something
from the environment
in order to increase
behavior
Subtract something
from the environment
in order to decrease
behavior
16
Behaviorism in the Classroom
• Rewards and
punishments
• Responsibility for
student learning
rests squarely with
the teacher
• Lecture-based,
highly structured
THANKS !