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Post Test Study Guide Answer Key 1. HMS Challenger: first voyage designed to study the oceans Forbes: Studied the biological aspects of the oceans (living things) Maury: Father of Modern Oceanography. Studied the physical aspects of the oceans including the seafloor features 2. Oceanography is the study of the oceans including the physical aspects (seafloor topography), chemical (salt content, etc) and biological (living things) 3. Atlantic: Warmest average temperature, most travelled by tourists, most polluted, 40 feet or greater waves recorded Pacific: in 1513 Balboa was the first European to visit this ocean, the Mariana’s Trench is located here, widest and deepest ocean with 25,000 or more islands Indian: travel is limited during monsoon season, nearly the same area size at the Atlantic, is located between the tropics, warm Arctic: Frozen most of the year, smallest, shallowest 4. Three obstacles: no oxygen, too high water pressure, very dark Used SONAR, scuba, submersibles, satellites, RUM II, and gravity mapping to better study the inaccessible parts of the oceans 5. Whole * % salinity = grams of salt 6. Evaporation: phase change liquid gas due to increase in heat Condensation: phase change gas liquid seen in clouds Precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, hail falling back to Earth Transpiration: plants releasing water into the atmosphere as a gas through their leaves Run-‐off: water from higher elevations joins collection areas Collection: areas where water accumulates (oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, etc) 7. If you increase salinity, you increase the density of the water and therefore increase buoyancy. It is easier to float in the Dead Sea than in Lake Erie because of this 8. Waves: caused by friction of wind pushing over the top of water Rogue wave: two waves collide to increase their height significantly Tides: caused by the gravitational pull of the moon to create high and low tides periodically Rip Current: narrow strip of water flowing perpendicular to the shore which can pull you out to sea 9. Gyres are surface currents that flow in circular patterns due to winds and the rotation of the Earth: clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere 10. Tsunamis form when underwater earthquakes transfer their energy to the oceans creating massive and very destructive waves 11. Create: highest point of wave Trough: lowest point of wave Wave length: distance between top of crest to the top of the next crest Height: distance from trough to crest of wave 12. Algae Minnow Shark 13. Horizontal: Littoral: intertidal, very harsh conditions Neritic: further out to sea, more calm Oceanic: deep area off of continental shelf Vertical: Sunlit: high sun, low water pressure, 0-‐200m deep Twilight: less sun, higher water pressure, lots of animals, 200-‐1000m Bathyal: dark, harsh conditions, 1000-‐4000m deep Abyssal: sea floor, no sunlight, high water pressure, 4000m and deeper 14. Plankton: floating, move based on currents/winds, algae Nekton: free swimming, orca Benthos: crawling or stationary, crab 15. Continental shelf: gently sloping and shallow extending from shoreline Continental slope: steep drop-‐off from shelf Mid-‐Ocean Ridge: underwater mountain range formed by divergent plates Volcanic Island: seamounts that grow tall enough to break the ocean surface Trench: deepest parts of the ocean where plates converge and one goes under the other plate Abyssal Plain: wide flat area at bottom of ocean Seamount: underwater mountain rising more than 1000m above the seafloor.