Download Evolution and Classification Test Review (Ch 15-18)

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Transcript
Name_________________________________________________________ Date__________________________ Period ________________
Evolution Test Review (Ch 15, 16 and 17 sec 4)
***DUE: the day of the test
***All questions must be answered on a SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER including all diagrams/tables!!!
1. Define the following terms:
Adaptation
Behavioral Isolation
Common Descent
Directional Selection
Disruptive Selection
Evolution
Fitness
Fossil
Founder Effect
Gene pool
Genetic Drift
Genetic Equilibrium
Geographical Isolation
Heritable Variation
Homologous Structures
Interbreed
Natural Selection
Phylogeny
Polygenic Traits
Population
Relative frequency
Reproductive Isolation
Speciation
Stabilizing Selection
Struggle for Existence
Survival of the Fittest
Temporal Isolation
Vestigial Structures
2. What did Hutton and Lyell, Lamarck, and Malthus propose that influenced Darwin’s thinking?
3. What are the 5 parts of Darwin’s theory of natural selection?
4. Why are these essential for the continuation of evolution?
5. Describe the process of evolution.
6. Natural selection acts on the organism’s _____
7. What are the two sources of genetic variation?
8. What is the ultimate source of genetic variation?
9. How are genes added to the gene pool?
10. How are genes removed from the gene pool?
11. Differentiate between single-gene traits and polygenic traits.
12. Single-trait typically leads to _____ distinct phenotypes, and can be represented by a _____ graph.
13. Polygenic trait can have _____ possible genotypes and phenotypes, and can be represented by a
_____ graph.
14. What happens when the allele frequency in a population changes over time?
15. What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?
16. What are three ways natural selection can affect the polygenic traits (the distribution of
phenotypes)? Provide an example, draw the graph and label.
17. What besides natural selection drives the mechanism of evolution (hint: they happen by chance)
18. Draw a diagram to show genetic drift.
19. Draw a diagram to show the founder effect.
20. List AND explain the five things necessary for genetic equilibrium to occur.
21. _____ isolation must occur for speciation to happen.
22. What are the three kinds of isolation mechanisms that lead to speciation? Give one example of
each.
23. What are the two methods to determine the ages of fossils? Which is more accurate?
24. How can you tell by looking at a cross section of sedimentary rock layers which layer is the
oldest/youngest?
25. What is macroevolution?
26. Compare and contrast gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium.
27. Define and provide an example for each pattern of macroevolution: Extinction, Adaptive
Radiation, Convergent Evolution, Co-evolution, Punctuated equilibrium.