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Name_________________________________________________________ Date__________________________ Period ________________ Evolution Test Review (Ch 15, 16 and 17 sec 4) ***DUE: the day of the test ***All questions must be answered on a SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER including all diagrams/tables!!! 1. Define the following terms: Adaptation Behavioral Isolation Common Descent Directional Selection Disruptive Selection Evolution Fitness Fossil Founder Effect Gene pool Genetic Drift Genetic Equilibrium Geographical Isolation Heritable Variation Homologous Structures Interbreed Natural Selection Phylogeny Polygenic Traits Population Relative frequency Reproductive Isolation Speciation Stabilizing Selection Struggle for Existence Survival of the Fittest Temporal Isolation Vestigial Structures 2. What did Hutton and Lyell, Lamarck, and Malthus propose that influenced Darwin’s thinking? 3. What are the 5 parts of Darwin’s theory of natural selection? 4. Why are these essential for the continuation of evolution? 5. Describe the process of evolution. 6. Natural selection acts on the organism’s _____ 7. What are the two sources of genetic variation? 8. What is the ultimate source of genetic variation? 9. How are genes added to the gene pool? 10. How are genes removed from the gene pool? 11. Differentiate between single-gene traits and polygenic traits. 12. Single-trait typically leads to _____ distinct phenotypes, and can be represented by a _____ graph. 13. Polygenic trait can have _____ possible genotypes and phenotypes, and can be represented by a _____ graph. 14. What happens when the allele frequency in a population changes over time? 15. What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? 16. What are three ways natural selection can affect the polygenic traits (the distribution of phenotypes)? Provide an example, draw the graph and label. 17. What besides natural selection drives the mechanism of evolution (hint: they happen by chance) 18. Draw a diagram to show genetic drift. 19. Draw a diagram to show the founder effect. 20. List AND explain the five things necessary for genetic equilibrium to occur. 21. _____ isolation must occur for speciation to happen. 22. What are the three kinds of isolation mechanisms that lead to speciation? Give one example of each. 23. What are the two methods to determine the ages of fossils? Which is more accurate? 24. How can you tell by looking at a cross section of sedimentary rock layers which layer is the oldest/youngest? 25. What is macroevolution? 26. Compare and contrast gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium. 27. Define and provide an example for each pattern of macroevolution: Extinction, Adaptive Radiation, Convergent Evolution, Co-evolution, Punctuated equilibrium.