Download Complementary base pairing Hydrogen bonding between purines

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Transcript
Complementary base pairing
Hydrogenbondingbetweenpurines(AandG)andpyrimidines(TandC)inDNA
DNA helicase
AnenzymethatunwindsandunzipsthedoublestrandedDNAbybreakingthe
weakhydrogenbondsbetweenthepairedbases
AnenzymethatpositionsandjoinsnewcomplementaryDNAnucleotidesinto
placeduringDNAreplication
Amolecularcomplexofthreesubunits;phosphate,apentosesugaranda
nitrogen-containingbase
ContainsDNAfromtwoormoredifferentsources
TheprocessofcopyingoneDNAdoublehelixintotwoidenticaldoublehelices
AtermreferringtothefactthatafterDNAreplication,anewdoublehelixhas
oneconservedold“template”strandandonenewstrand
DNA polymerase
nucleotide
recombinant DNA
replication
semi-conservative replication
amino acid
anti-codon
codon
Anorganicmoleculecomposedofanaminogroupandanacidicgroup
AtripletofthreebasescomplementarytoacodonofmRNA
AtripletofnucleotidesinmRNAthateithercodesforaparticularaminoacidor
signalspolypeptidetermination
DNA sequence (genetic code)
a succession of letters (ACTG) that indicate the order of nucleotides within a
DNA molecule. elongation
Secondstepofproteinsynthesis,inwhichapolypeptideincreasesinlengthone
aminoacidatatime
environmental mutagen
Environmentalinfluencescausingmutationsinhumans
genetic disorder
Anillnesscausedbyoneormoreabnormalitiesinthegenomeeg.sicsickleeg.
Sicklecellanemiaiscausedbyapointmutation
initiation
Firststepofproteinsynthesis,inwhichallthetranslationcomponentsare
broughttogether
messenger RNA (mRNA)
AribonucleicacidmoleculethatisformedbyusingtheDNAmoleculeasa
templateandassemblingacomplementarysetofbases(althoughitcontains
UracilinsteadofThymine).ThisRNAtravelsthroughthenuclearporestothe
ribosomewhereproteinsareformedbasedonthesequencethatwas
transcribedinthenucleus.
mutation
ApermanentchangeinthesequenceofbasesintheDNA;eithergerm-lineor
somatic
polypeptide chain
Achainofaminoacidsthatarejoinedtooneanotherbyapeptidebond
ribosomes
ResponsibleforthesynthesisofproteinsusingmRNAasatemplate;composed
oftwosubunits
termination
Thirdandfinalstepofproteinsynthesis,inwhichthepolypeptideandthe
assembledcomponentsthatcarriedoutproteinsynthesisareseparatedfrom
oneanother
transcription
Thefirststageofgeneexpression;processinwhichaportionofDNAservesasa
templateformRNAformation
transfer RNA (tRNA)
Anucleicacidcontainingthesugarribosethatisresponsibleforbringingthe
appropriateaminoacidtotheribosomeforproteinformation
translation
Duringgeneexpression,theprocessinwhichthesequenceofmRNAbases
determinesthesequenceofaminoacidsinapolypeptide