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DEFENSE – Integumentary System How do the integumentary, immune and lymphatic systems work together to defend the body? Functions of the Integumentary System 1. Acts as a __________ barrier for internal organs and tissues. 2. Prevents __________ like bacteria and viruses from entering the body. 3. Helps to regulate the body’s ____________ by sweating or forming “goose bumps”. o When you sweat, your body places __________ onto the surface of your skin. Water can absorb large amounts of ______ before it evaporates. Because the water absorbs the heat then carries it away, your body can keep itself from ____________. o Skin and hair also help the body _______ heat when it is cold. o The dermis is abundantly supplied with blood vessels that play a role in maintaining body temperature homeostasis. If Cold: Blood vessels in the dermis ______________ (constrict), helping to limit heat loss. Blood _________________ the dermis capillaries temporarily, which allows internal body temperature to stay __________. If Hot: Blood vessels ___________ (dilate), bringing heat from the body's core to the skin and increasing heat loss. Skin becomes reddened and warm and allows body heat to radiate from the skin surface. 4. Makes __________ when exposed to UV light. 5. Prevents the body from becoming ___________ due to excess water loss. 6. Aids in _________________, like urea and salts. 7. Acts as a ______________by detecting heat, cold, pressure, and pain Evolutionary Trends of the Integumentary System Animal Taxon Adaptations Invertebrates _____________ secrete mucous; shells and ______________ made of chitin; stinging or sharp outer cells Fish Amphibians Mucous secreted over _________ decreases friction in the water Have mucous glands to keep skin moist; to help with respiration and body temperature Fish Frogs, Toads, Salamanders Reptiles Dry, scaly skin made of ________ to prevent water loss and regulate body temperature Birds __________ to fly; glands secrete oily substances to keep feathers waterproof; colorful for communication Picture of Adaptation Examples Jellyfish, worms, insects, crustaceans Alligator, Lizards, Snakes Birds Skin: The main organ of the integumentary system is the _____. It contains three layers known as the________, ______, and the ____________, which is the underlying layer of ______ for insulation. 1. Epidermis (Add extra notes from slides here) • outer layer approximately 10-30 cells thick • covered in __________ • Hair and nails protude from this layer • contains melanin pigment that gives skin its color • • 2. Dermis (Add extra notes from slides here) • thickest layer • contains blood vessels, muscles, nerves, hair follicles, _______ glands and subaceous (_____) glands • • Levels of Organization Interactions with Other Body Systems Skin is the first line of defense in the _____________________response. The __________________________ and skin regulate body temperature. Skin and the _______________________ excrete water, urea, salts, and other wastes through sweat. Receptors of the _____________________________ are located in skin. Defense - Immune/Lymphatic System Immune System Functions: The main function of the immune system is to fight off ___________. This is the job of the ________ blood cells and the ___________ they create. White blood cell travels throughout the body through the ___________ system. This allows them to be ___________ to every part of the body. A substance that triggers this immune response is known as an______________. o Examples of Antigens: ________________, __________________, and Other Pathogens. Cells that recognize specific antigens (lymphocytes): o B Lymphocytes (_________): Provide immunity against pathogens and antigens in body fluids. o T Lymphocytes (__________): Provide a defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells. o ____________________: Large cells that eat pathogens and damaged cells. Types of White Blood Cells: ______________ - These cells kill bacteria by __________ them (process known as_____________). This means that they pull the pathogen inside of themselves where the pathogen is trapped and __________ by proteins called __________. These cells are made in bone marrow. __________ - These cells make ___________. Memory B cells are also responsible for “remembering” a specific bacteria or virus. This causes your body to be __________ to them in the future. Antibodies are an important part of the immune system. Once they attach to an _________, they can prevent further infection and signal the _______________ and __________________ to destroy the toxic invaders. _________ - These white blood cells actually attack the body’s cells which contain ________ or _________. They also target and destroy __________ cells which are the root of all cancers. Penicillin and other _______________ can also be used to help the immune system, but it is important that you understand that antibiotics only kill ___________! They will NOT help if you are sick with a _______________ because viruses are not cells! Human Immunodeficiency Virus H.I.V. is the virus that causes __________, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It attacks a special T cell known as a __________ cell. Lymphatic System: The lymphatic system removes ___________ from around cells and filters out pathogens. When this fluid passes through the _______________, white blood cells attack and kill any pathogens. When bacteria and other pathogens travel through the lymph nodes, they are attacked by _______________ blood cells. This causes the lymph nodes to ___________________. Lymphatic system also collects fluid lost by the blood and returns it to the _______________system. Organs in Lymphatic System: o lymph nodes -- act as filters to trap bacteria and other organisms that cause disease o lymph – fluid in lymph vessels o lymph vessels – run along side veins collecting and carrying lymph back to the circulatory system & move the lymph throughout the body tonsils – filter and destroy bacteria thymus – produces hormones that aid in maturation of white blood cells spleen – removes worn-out red blood cells, platelets, bacteria from the blood Lymph & Immune System - Levels of Organization Interactions with other Body Systems _____________ of the integumentary system is the _________ line of defense of the immune system. The ___________________ system transports immune cells around the body. It also helps control body fluids with the lymphatic system. The ____________________________ system excretes excess fluids and pathogens. Bones of the _______________ system produce __________________ and macrophages.