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Transcript
DEFENSE – Integumentary System
How do the integumentary, immune and lymphatic systems work together to defend the body?
Functions of the Integumentary System
1. Acts as a __________ barrier for internal organs and tissues.
2. Prevents __________ like bacteria and viruses from entering
the body.
3. Helps to regulate the body’s ____________ by sweating or
forming “goose bumps”.
o When you sweat, your body places __________ onto
the surface of your skin. Water can absorb large
amounts of ______ before it evaporates. Because the water absorbs the heat then carries it
away, your body can keep itself from ____________.
o Skin and hair also help the body _______ heat when it is cold.
o The dermis is abundantly supplied with blood vessels that play a role in maintaining body
temperature homeostasis.
 If Cold:
 Blood vessels in the dermis ______________ (constrict), helping to limit heat
loss.
 Blood _________________ the dermis capillaries temporarily, which allows
internal body temperature to stay __________.
 If Hot:
 Blood vessels ___________ (dilate), bringing heat from the body's core to the
skin and increasing heat loss.
 Skin becomes reddened and warm and allows body heat to radiate from the skin
surface.
4. Makes __________ when exposed to UV light.
5. Prevents the body from becoming ___________ due to excess water loss.
6. Aids in _________________, like urea and salts.
7. Acts as a ______________by detecting heat, cold, pressure, and pain
Evolutionary Trends of the Integumentary System
Animal
Taxon
Adaptations
Invertebrates
_____________
secrete mucous;
shells and
______________
made of chitin;
stinging or sharp
outer cells
Fish
Amphibians
Mucous
secreted over
_________
decreases
friction in the
water
Have mucous
glands to keep skin
moist; to help with
respiration and
body temperature
Fish
Frogs, Toads,
Salamanders
Reptiles
Dry, scaly skin
made of
________ to
prevent water
loss and
regulate body
temperature
Birds
__________ to fly;
glands secrete oily
substances to keep
feathers
waterproof;
colorful for
communication
Picture of
Adaptation
Examples
Jellyfish, worms,
insects, crustaceans
Alligator, Lizards,
Snakes
Birds
Skin:
The main organ of the integumentary system is the _____.
It contains three layers known as the________, ______, and the
____________, which is the underlying layer of ______ for
insulation.
1. Epidermis (Add extra notes from slides here)
• outer layer approximately 10-30 cells thick
• covered in __________
• Hair and nails protude from this layer
• contains melanin pigment that gives skin its color
•
•
2. Dermis (Add extra notes from slides here)
• thickest layer
• contains blood vessels, muscles, nerves, hair follicles, _______ glands and subaceous (_____) glands
•
•
Levels of Organization
Interactions with Other Body Systems
 Skin is the first line of defense in the _____________________response.
 The __________________________ and skin regulate body temperature.
 Skin and the _______________________ excrete water, urea, salts, and other wastes through sweat.
 Receptors of the _____________________________ are located in skin.
Defense - Immune/Lymphatic System
Immune System Functions:
 The main function of the immune system is to fight off ___________. This is the job of the ________
blood cells and the ___________ they create.
 White blood cell travels throughout the body through the ___________ system. This allows them to
be ___________ to every part of the body.
 A substance that triggers this immune response is known as an______________.
o Examples of Antigens: ________________, __________________, and Other Pathogens.
 Cells that recognize specific antigens (lymphocytes):
o B Lymphocytes (_________): Provide immunity against pathogens and antigens in body fluids.
o T Lymphocytes (__________): Provide a defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside
living cells.
o ____________________: Large cells that eat pathogens and damaged cells.
Types of White Blood Cells:


______________ - These cells kill bacteria by __________ them (process known as_____________). This means
that they pull the pathogen inside of themselves where the pathogen is trapped and __________ by proteins
called __________. These cells are made in bone marrow.
__________ - These cells make ___________. Memory B cells are also responsible for “remembering” a specific
bacteria or virus. This causes your body to be __________ to them in the future.
Antibodies are an important part of the immune system. Once they attach to an
_________, they can prevent further infection and signal the _______________ and
__________________ to destroy the toxic invaders.

_________ - These white blood cells actually attack the body’s cells which contain
________ or _________. They also target and destroy __________ cells which
are the root of all cancers.
Penicillin and other _______________ can also be used to help the immune system, but it
is important that you understand that antibiotics only kill ___________! They will NOT
help if you are sick with a _______________ because viruses are not cells!
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
H.I.V. is the virus that causes __________, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It attacks a special T cell known as
a __________ cell.
Lymphatic System:

The lymphatic system removes ___________ from around cells and filters out
pathogens. When this fluid passes through the _______________, white
blood cells attack and kill any pathogens.

When bacteria and other pathogens travel through the lymph nodes, they are
attacked by _______________ blood cells. This causes the lymph nodes to
___________________. Lymphatic system also collects fluid lost by the blood
and returns it to the _______________system.
Organs in Lymphatic System:
o lymph nodes -- act as filters to trap bacteria and
other organisms that cause disease
o lymph – fluid in lymph vessels
o lymph vessels – run along side veins collecting and
carrying lymph back to the circulatory system & move
the lymph throughout the body

tonsils – filter and destroy bacteria

thymus – produces hormones that aid in maturation of
white blood cells

spleen – removes worn-out red blood cells, platelets,
bacteria from the blood
Lymph & Immune System - Levels of Organization
Interactions with other Body Systems


_____________ of the integumentary system is the _________ line of defense of the
immune system.
The ___________________ system transports immune cells around the body. It also
helps control body fluids with the lymphatic system.
The ____________________________ system excretes excess fluids and pathogens.

Bones of the _______________ system produce __________________ and macrophages.
