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• Know how to calculate the following: – Standard deviation and standard error – Using error bars in bar graphs – Reaction rate (slope) calculation – Water potential calculations • What is the main purpose and equation of cellular respiration? • What type of organisms perform cellular respiration? • Where does CR take place in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes? • Explain the role of an electrochemical gradient in forming ATP molecules. • What would happen with the process of cellular respiration if mitochondria would be punctured? • What is the main purpose of fermentation? • How does the efficiency of fermentation compare to the efficiency of cellular respiration? • What is the purpose of glycolysis? Where does it take place? • What is the purpose of the intermediate process? Where does it take place? • What is the purpose of the citric acid cycle? Where does it take place? Under what conditions? • Where are the following substances produced? Where are they used after production? – Pyruvate – NADH – ATP – FADH2 – CO2 – FAD – O2 – NAD+ • Where exactly does oxygen come from during photosynthesis? • Where exactly does ATP come from during photosynthesis? • Where exactly is water used during photosynthesis? • Where exactly is CO2 used in photosynthesis? • What is the free energy source of cellular respiration? Photosynthesis? • Where exactly is glucose produced in photosynthesis? • Where exactly are ATP and NADPH used in photosynthesis? • How exactly is the energy of sunlight used as a source of energy during photosynthesis? • Where exactly is NADPH produced during photosynthesis? • Explain the process of the light reaction. • Explain how various animals resolve transport of materials. Point out an advantage and disadvantage of each. • Explain how oxygen is transported in the blood. Point out two different changes that can help the easy release of oxygen in the right places. • Describe three evolutionary trends of vertebrate circulation. • Explain how the heart provides a one-way circulation. • Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide rich blood separated in the heart. • Explain how minerals can be transported into plant roots. • Give two examples of surface increasing methods in plant roots. • Explain what forces move water into plant roots than up into the leaves. • Explain the role of Casparian strips in plant transport. • Explain how the stomata of plants open and close. • Explain how organic matter is transported in plants. • List three examples of using H ion pump in plant transport. • List and explain 4 adaptations of plants to dry land • List and explain 4 adaptations of plants to water.