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Transcript
Reading Guide, Pratt and Cornely Chapter 19
1. Give an example of how cellular compartmentalization achieves regulation of reciprocal
metabolic pathways.
2. LIVER: After a meal, where do carbohydrates get stored? Where do excess carbohydrates and
amino acids get stored? Where do fatty acids get stored?
3. During a fast, what is the role of the liver in releasing fuels?
4. How are skeletal and heart muscle different in terms of metabolism?
5. What other organ, besides the liver, does gluconeogenesis? Why?
6. Why might it be advantageous for cancer cells to obtain must ATP by glycolysis rather than
oxidative phosphorylation.
7. What is the purpose of the Cori cycle?
8. What is the purpose of the glucose/alanine cycle?
9. Insulin stimulates activities such as _______ and inhibits processes such as _____________.
10. In what tissue(s) is hexokinase replaced by glucokinase? What is the difference in the
isozymes, and why is it metabolically important?
11. Insulin signals fuel abundance by decreasing ______________ while promoting _________.
12. How does insulin activate glucose uptake by muscle and adipose? How does it signal
triacylglyceride uptake?
13. Glycogen metabolism enzymes are regulated by ______________ effectors, but the primary
mechanism of regulation is through _______________________, which is under hormone
control.
14. How does phosphorylation affect glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase?
15. Enzymes called ______________________ oppose the action of kinases, turning off
glycogen degradation and turning on glycogen synthesis.
16. Liver cells respond to glucagon by _________________________.
17. Muscle does not respond to glucagon, but does respond to ______________________ by
releasing stored fuel.
18. How do glucagon and epinephrine stimulate the breakdown of fats?
19. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose that has what effect?
20. In addition to acting as allosteric effectors, high [AMP]/[ATP] ratio can activate ATP
generating catabolism processes through the _______________________ kinase.
21. During a fast, amino acids are made into glucose. How does the body avoid using up all its
proteins?
22. What hormone helps to set the set-point? Why is it hard to maintain weight loss?
23. What is the role of “brown fat” in obesity?
24. What is the cause of type-1 diabetes? How is type-2 diabetes different?
25. When cells fail to take up glucose, the body’s metabolism responds as if no glucose were
available, so ____________________ increases in the liver.
26. How does hyperglycemia lead to tissue damage?
27. Although diabetes is a disorder of glucose metabolism, it is also a disorder of ___________
metabolism.
28. What is metabolic syndrome?