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The Rise of the Roman Republic 509 BC – 27 BC Rome’s greatest achievements: • Established the first Republic and the principle of separation of powers; • Used law and government to unite many different regions, cultures and people.continued Hellenistic cosmopolitanism • Practical engineering projects to promote civilization: roads, bridges, aqueducts, bath houses and amphitheatres. The Myth of Rome’s birth: Caesar Augustus asked Rome’s greatest poet, Virgil to write a poem to glorify the founding of Rome • Prince Aeneas with Queen Dido on the harbor of Carthage Aeneas reaches Latium • Romulus and Remustwin sons of Princess Rhea Romulus and Remus: twin sons of Princess Rhea The Archaeological Record • 2500 BC- Paleolithic settlements • 1500 BC The Bronze Age • 1000 BC tombs of cremated dead with bronze tools and weapons • 800 BC Distinct groups occupied the Italian peninsula- Umbrians, the Sabines, the Samnites, the Etruscans and the Latins • Three advantages • 1) built on several hills • 2) Towards the end of the Tiber River • 3) Only 15 miles from the sea The Etruscans • 753-509 BC • Older, more advanced culture • Drained marshes • Built sewer system • Constructed roads, sewers. temples & public buildings The Republic is established, 509 BC • The last Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud, ignored the Senate and was overthrown, the patricians (wealthy Latin landowners) created a representative government. Two Consuls replaced the king • • • • • • Elected by Assembly One year position Led an army Defended the city Veto power Imperium Assemblies debated and voted on legislation; and listened to campaign speeches The Roman Senate: • Senators came from the Patrician class • Acted as an advisory body to the king/consuls • Controlled the finances; money for public works • Served as a Jury for treason, conspiracy, murder, & foreign relations • Early Roman society consisted of two classes: Patricians and Plebeians… Plebeian grievances included: Enslavement for debt Discrimination in the courts Intermarriage with patricians was forbidden Lack of political representation Absence of a written code of laws Granting citizenship to outsiders while denying it to indigenous plebeian farmers The Struggle of the Orders 494 – 287 BC • • • • • • 494 BC – Office of the Tribune created 460 BC – Voting: residence replaced wealth 450 BC – Twelve Tables 445 BC – Lex Canuleia-marriage 367 BC – Licinian-Sextian Rogation-consuls 287 BC – Lex Hortensia- Plebeian Council Roman Expansion • • • • 493 BC – Battle of Lake Regillus/Latin League 396 BC – Battle of Veii/Etruscans 390 C – first & only setback – Gauls seige on Rome 350 BC - Romans bounced back- rebuilt the Servian Wall and remodeled the army • 340- 290 BC The Latin Wars/Roman Federation • 282-270 BC defeated Greeks/Tarentum & Epirus • By 264 BC, 5 major world powers: Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, Carthage and Rome • The Battle of Lake Regillus, 493 BC the mythological twins, the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, on horseback. Defeating the Etruscans- The Battle of Veii, 396 BC Horatius At The Bridge 390 C – first & only setback – Gauls seige on Rome 350 BC: Rome renewed itself… The Latin Wars 340- 338 BC; 326-304 B.C. 298-290 B.C. The Roman Federation & • 282-270 BC Rome fought the Greeks of Tarentum and their ally- King Pyrrhus of Epirus • By 264 BC, Rome had achieved two important successes: – It had secured social cohesion by redressing the grievances of the plebeians – It had increased its military might by conquering the peninsula. By 264 BC, 5 major world powers: Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, Carthage and Rome • ANY QUESTIONS?