Download genetics vocabulary - Mrs. Stolting

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Transcript
GENETICS VOCABULARY
1. Genetics - The science that studies the laws of heredity
2. Heredity - The passing of traits from parent to offspring
3. Gregor Mendel - Austrian monk, known as the Father of Genetics, who did experiments on pea
plants and determined the basic laws of heredity
4. Chromosome - Rod shaped structure containing genes
-Humans have 46 or 23 pairs where one chromosome of each pair comes from the mother and
the other in the pair comes from the father
5. Gene - Location on a chromosome that controls a particular trait
6. Pure Trait - When the pair of genes for a trait is identical
7. Homozygous Trait - Same as the pure trait
8. Hybrid Trait - When the pair of genes for a trait are different
9. Heterozygous Trait - Same as the hybrid trait
10. Dominant Gene/Trait - One in the pair for a trait that can mask the other one in the pair
11. Recessive Gene/Trait - One in the pair that can be masked or hidden by the other one in the pair
12. Phenotype - The physical trait that you see
13. Genotype - The words describing the make up of the gene pair
ex. - pure dominant
- hybrid dominant
- pure recessive
14. Punnett Square - Method used to predict the possible outcomes of the offspring
15. Incomplete Dominance - When unlike genes for a trait are expressed as a mix or blend
16. Codominance - When unlike genes for a trait are both expressed
17. Pedigree Chart - A record of marriages and births in a family from generation to generation
following a single trait through those generations
18. Sex-linked Trait - A trait caused by genes found only on the X chromosome
19. DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid, large molecule that contains the hereditary information
20. Mutation - any change in the genetic material (DNA)
21. Allele – The different form of a gene