Download Unit #3- The Romans

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AP World History
Pod #4
Mediterranean Democracy
Legend of Rome
Class Discussion Questions
McKay – “The Land and the Sea”, pp. 124
McKay – “The Etruscans and Rome”, pp. 124-127
McKay – “The Roman Conquest of Italy”, pp. 127-129
McKay – “Social Conflict In Rome”, pp. 130-131
1. How did the geography of Italy impact the
development of civilization on the peninsula?
• The Italian peninsula divided the Mediterranean into two
• The Italian peninsula is protected in the north by the
Apennine Mountains
• These mountains run the length of the peninsula and
force the Italians (Romans) to use the western coast
focusing attention on the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and
northern Africa
• The soil is generally fertile and able to support a large
• While a mountainous nation the mountains did not
prevent political unity as in Greece
• The Tiber River became the location for Rome providing
the city with a constant source of water
• Rome was built on seven hills
2. What contributions did the Etruscans
make to the development of the region?
• Built a society based around trade with the
eastern Mediterranean
• Rich mineral resources were traded for
luxury goods
• Developed cities that resembled the Greek
• These cities were linked through a loose
league giving them increased strength
3. What is the Legend of Rome?
• Romulus and Remus were the sons of a mortal
and the god Mars
• They were abandoned along the Tiber River and
raised by a she-wolf (prostitute)
• Romulus built his city on the Palatine Hill while
Remus built on the Aventine
• Jealous of his brothers, Remus jumped over
Romulus’ unfinished wall
• Romulus killed his brother in revenge and vowed
“so will die whoever else shall leap over my
4. Describe the development of Rome from
753 B.C. to 509 B.C.
• Rome adopted many Etruscan customs
• Copied the alphabet of the Etruscans which was
copied from the Greeks and later passed on to
medieval Europe
• The Etruscans brought Rome into contact with
the Mediterranean world
• Rome began to grow
• The forum was transformed from a cemetery to
a public meeting place similar to the agora in
5. Why is 509 B.C. an important year in the history
of Rome? What important decision was made at
this time?
• 509 B.C. – expelled the Eturscan king,
Tarquin the Proud
• 509 B.C. – The Republic was formed
• Never again would tyranny be allowed to
take root (warning to Julius Caesar)
6. What were the key stages of Roman conquest
and unification of the Italian peninsula?
• 390 B.C. – a set back was experienced as
the Celts (Gaul) sacked the city of Rome
• 390-290 B.C. – the Romans focused on
rebuilding the city – the Romans and
Italians began to form a bond based on
religious cults, mythology, and drama
• The Romans shared political power and
citizenship with those they conquered
• Roads allowed for communication
7. What were the terms of Roman
• Romans had full citizenship
• civitas sine suffragio – citizenship without the
franchise or right to vote was often granted to
• These people had all the rights of a Roman
citizen but could not vote or hold office
• They paid Roman taxes and served in the
military but had control of their own local affairs
8. How did the Roman conquest and
colonization differ from that of the Greeks?
• Rome was superior to Greece in that it
shared the riches of conquest with the
• By extending Roman citizenship to the
conquered, it strengthened the state
through increased wealth and man power
1. What was the ius civile?
• Civil Laws
• Regulated the lives of citizens, consisted
of statutes, customs, and forms of
• Roman Assembly added to the law
• The law was designed to protect the
property, lives, and reputations of citizens
• It punished and corrected wrongs
2. What was the ius naturale?
• Natural Laws
• A universal law that could be used in all
• Based on the ideas of the stoic school of
3. What was the ius gentium?
• Law of the Peoples
• Applied to Roman and foreign alike
• Laid the foundation for a universal law
4. What was the Struggle of the Order?
• This was the conflict between the Plebians
and the Patricians of Rome who were
battling for power and control over the
Roman legal system
• The Patricians held a monopoly on the
legal system and had to give in to the
demands of the Plebians who threatened
to withhold military service and agricultural
5. What reforms were instituted in the
Struggle of the Order?
• Plebians and Patricians could marry
• Plebians could elect their own officials called Tribunes
• Tribunes protected the Plebians from abuses in power by
the Patrician magistrates (VETO)
• Tribunes brought Plebian grievances before the Senate
• Used these reforms as a way to gain equality under the
• Twelve Tables were published removing the Patrician
monopoly on the law
• Licinian-Sextian Rogations (laws) ensured that one of
the two Consuls must be a Plebian
• Lex Hortensia – the laws of the Plebian Assembly were
binding on all Plebians and Patricians
6. What were the Twelve Tables?
• Laws which covered civil and criminal
• Recorded for all to see and placed in the
• This broke the monopoly the patricians
had on knowledge and understanding of
the law
7. What was the historical significance of the
Struggle of the Order?
• Plebians gained increased political power
and social status
• A new nobility of plebians and patricians
was created
• Aristocratic rule was actually increased
• Rome was stronger and more unified
• All Roman citizens were equal under the