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Transcript
EVOLUTION
REVIEW
Chapter 15
Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
Change in a population over time
evolution
Differences among individuals
within a species
Natural variation
Structures that develop from the
same embryonic tissues, but
have different mature forms
Homologous structures
Organ with little or no function
Vestigial organ
Ability of an organism to
survive and reproduce in a
specific environment
fitness
Inherited characteristic that
increases and organism’s chances
for survival
adaptation
Preserved remains of an ancient
organism
fossil
Islands that Darwin visited on his
voyage on the Beagle that started
him thinking about how organisms
change over time
Galapagos
Concept that each living species
has descended with changes
from other species over time
Descent with Modifications
Idea that organisms that are
best suited to their environment
will survive and reproduce
Survival of the Fittest
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A
PHYSICAL ADAPTATION
Webbed feet, horns, antlers,
claws, feathers, wings, camouflage,
. . . . there are a million
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A
BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATION
Nocturnal (coming out at night);
Flying south for the winter, living in herds,
“wagon train” defense; burrowing; hibernation
When humans select and breed
animals with certain useful
traits from the natural
variation in the population
Artificial selection
Process by which unrelated
organisms independently evolve
similarities when adapting to
similar environments
Convergent evolution
Book published by Charles Darwin
in which he proposed a mechanism
and provided evidence for his
Theory of Evolution
“On the Origin of Species”
Process by which related organisms
evolve differences when they are
isolated in different environments
Divergent evolution
The bones in the diagrams below
are examples of
________________
Homologous structures
http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html
Naturalist who gave Darwin incentive to
publish his ideas about evolution by
writing an essay that described similar
ideas.
Alfred Wallace
French naturalist who hypothesized
that organisms acquire traits during
their lifetime through use or disuse
which can be passed on to offspring
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
2 geologists who recognized that
Earth is many millions of years old
and that processes that changed it
still operate today
James Hutton & Charles Lyell
English economist who reasoned that
if the human population kept growing
unchecked, there would be
insufficient food and space for
everyone
Thomas Malthus
Explain what was incorrect about Lamarck’s
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
hypothesis
Genes determine which traits are passed on;
unless genes are changed the acquired trait will
only show in the original organism
Explain what was correct about Lamarck’s
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
hypothesis
First theory about evolution;
Organisms do change and adapt to their
environments
Name 3 kinds of evidence that
supports Darwin’s THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
Fossils
Geographic distribution
Homologous structures
Vestigial organs
Embryology
DNA
Pseudogenes
Artificial selection
Can see natural selection work
antibiotic resistance, new diseases,
The idea that all species, living
and extinct, were derived from
a common ancestor
Common descent
Natural selection is the same as
Survival
of the fittest
______________
Measuring lima beans and finding
beans come in different sizes is
an example of
Natural variation
____________
The practice of breeding dogs to
produce offspring with specific
traits is an example of
Artificial
selection
_________________
A human’s appendix and a
skink’s legs are examples of
_______________
Vestigial organs
How would Lamarck
explain these giraffes
with longer necks?
They grew longer with use
Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
How would Darwin explain these
giraffes with longer necks?
Populations naturally have
individuals with different
sizes of necks
(natural variation)
The ones with longer necks
are better able to get food,
survive, and pass on their longer
neck genes.
Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
How would Darwin explain the
evolution of this giraffe
population towards longer necks?
Longer necked giraffes can better
compete for food and survive to
reproduce, passing on their long
necked genes.
Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
How would Lamarck explain the
evolution of this giraffe
population towards longer necks?
The long-necked trait acquired by
stretching can be passed onto
offspring and those organisms will
be better able to survive.
Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html
The diagrams at the
right show evidence
of ____________
Common descent
A.
B.
C.
D.
natural selection
natural variation
common descent
artificial selection
According to this diagram, modern
whales have a vestigial pelvis
and femur. What does this suggest
about ancestors of modern whales?
Ancestors of modern
whales had legs and
walked on land
Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing © 2006
The adaptations in species of finches
that Darwin observed on the
Galάpagos Islands were
different shaped _____________
beaks
Why did Darwin first hesitate to
publish his ideas about evolution?
His findings challenged
fundamental scientific beliefs at
the time
A possible explanation for a set of
observations or a possible answer
to a scientific question
hypothesis
Change in the DNA sequence of an
organism due to mistake is
replication or damage from
radiation or chemicals
mutation
Whales and wolves share a common
ancestor, but have evolved to look
very different. This is an example
of _____________
evolution.
divergent
What do we call genes that have
lost their function due to mutations?
pseudogenes
Whales and sharks are not closely
related, but have evolved to have
similar body shapes and fins
because they live in similar
environments. This is an example of
_____________
evolution.
convergent
Tell one piece of evidence that
suggests human chromosome #2
evolved by joining 2 smaller
ancestor chromosomes.
Banding pattern matches
It has telomeres in the middle
instead of just at the ends.
It has an extra inactive centromere
instead of just one.
Whales and wolves share a common
ancestor, but have evolved to look
very different. This is an example
of _____________
evolution.
divergent
What do we call genes that have
lost their function due to mutations?
pseudogenes
Give an example of homologous
structures
Human arm, bird wing, whale flipper
Give an example of a pseudogene you
learned about
Vitamin C gene in primates,
genes for “smell” in humans
A well supported, testable
explanation of phenomena that
have occurred in the natural
world is called a
______________
theory
Name the ship that Darwin spent 5
years on traveling around the world.
H.M.S. Beagle
Who is the scientist that proposed
the idea that forces have been
changing the Earth and have been
at work for millions of years?
James Hutton
Who is the scientist that proposed
the idea of “Inheritance of
Acquired Traits”?
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Who is the scientist that proposed
the idea that forces which have been
changing the Earth are still at work?
Charles Lyell
Who realized that human populations
were increasing and said eventually
there would not be enough food and
space for everyone?
Thomas Malthus
Who is the scientist that proposed
an idea about evolution which
prompted Darwin to publish his
theory?
Alfred Wallace
Fur, feathers, beaks, antlers, & claws
adaptations
are all examples of ____________
When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some
antelope are killed and some escape. Which
part of Darwin’s theory of evolution might be
used to describe this situation?
Survival of the fittest;
Adaptations can be which of these?
Physical
behavioral
geographical
Physical or behavioral
Explain what was incorrect about Lamarck’s
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
hypothesis
TRAITS ARE DETERMINED BY GENES;
ACQUIRED TRAITS ARE NOT PASSED ON
Explain what was correct about Lamarck’s
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
hypothesis
LIVING THINGS CHANGE OVER TIME TO
BEST FIT THEIR ENVIRONMENTS
Another name for divergent evolution
Adaptive radiation
is ________________
What Darwin called “survival of the
fittest”
Natural selection
_________________
Another name for “struggle for
competition
existance” is _______________
Of all the places he visited, the
GALAPAGOS Islands
______________
influenced Darwin’s ideas about
evolution the most.
In addition to observing living
organisms, Darwin studied the
preserved remains of ancient organisms
fossils
called _________________
On the Galápagos Islands, Darwin
observed that the characteristics of
many animals and plants
A. all looked alike
B. were completely unrelated
C. were acquired through use
D. varied from island to island .
D. Varied from island to island
Darwin’s concept of evolution was influenced by all
of the following EXCEPT _________________
A.
B.
C.
D.
the work of Charles Lyell and James Hutton
his collection of specimens and fossils
his knowledge of the structure of DNA
his voyage around the world
E. Malthus’s ideas about populations and resources
C. Darwin didn’t know about DNA!
All of these statements about the structure of
human chromosome #2 provide evidence for
evolution EXCEPT _______________________
A. Its banding pattern matches the pattern seen on two smaller
chimp chromosomes
B. It has telomeres in the center, as well as at the ends
C. It carries a functional gene for making vitamin C
D. It has an extra non-functional centromere
C. Humans have a nonfunctional vitamin C making gene,
and its not on chromosome #2
Give a summary of Darwin’s theory
of evolution
Natural variation in population provides basis
for natural selection to act
Overproduction of offspring forces
competition for resources (struggle for survival)
Organisms best suited to their environment will survive
and reproduce; Other organisms die or leave fewer
Offspring (survival of the fittest/natural selection)
Species alive today have descended with modification
from ancestral species that lived in the distant past
All organisms are united into a single “tree of life”
(common descent)
THE END. . .
or is it?
EVOLUTION IS STILL HAPPENING