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Convention on Climate Change
Clean Development Mechanism
Climate Change Science
Climate Change Science
Climate Change Science
Frying the Earth?
Climate Change Science
Climate Change Science
Forecast of Global Energy Demand
World primary energy use
Data Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2001
and UN Population Division )
But of course
we don’t all
use the same:
global inequality
in ‘domestic’
1 US
2 UK
3 Hong Kong
5 Chileans
6 Iraqis
10 Chinese
12 Zambians
16 Indians
23 Nepalese
28 Ethiopians
Data Source:
Indicators, 2001
50 Bangladeshis
Convention on Climate Change
• The ultimate goal of the Climate Change
Convention (1992) is to stabilize greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere at levels that will not
dangerously upset the global climate system.
• This should be done within a time frame that
allows ecosystems to adapt naturally to
climate change, ensures that food production
is not threatened and enables economic
development to proceed in a sustainable
Convention on Climate Change
• Developed nations, as well as a number of
countries whose economies are in transition,
such as in eastern Europe, shall adopt
national policies and take measures to limit
emissions of greenhouse gases. They shall
also protect and improve forests, that acts as
sinks and reservoirs for greenhouse gases
Convention on Climate Change
• The aim for these nations is to reduce their
emissions of carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gases to 1990 levels. (The
emissions of some other greenhouse gases,
which also damage the ozone layer, are being
controlled under other international
Convention on Climate Change
• On a person basis, greenhouse gas emissions
from developing countries are still relatively
low. For these countries, the first and
overriding priorities are economic and social
development, and eradication of poverty. The
developing nations’ share of global emissions
will grow as their economies expand, and
they use more energy.
Convention on Climate Change
Developed countries shall help developing nations
deal with requirements of Convention and the
effects of climate change by:
• Providing money and technological assistance to
help these nations measure flows of greenhouse
• Assisting countries that are particularly
vulnerable to harmful effects of climate change
to meet the costs of adaptation.
• Providing environmentally sound technologies
and know-how, as well as supporting the
development of technologies within these
Convention on Climate Change
• The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the
"supreme body" of the Convention, that is, its
highest decision-making authority. It is an
association of all the countries that are
Parties to the Convention
Convention on Climate Change
• The COP is responsible for keeping international
efforts to address climate change on track. It
reviews the implementation of the Convention
and examines the commitments of Parties in
light of the Convention’s objective, new scientific
findings and experience gained in implementing
climate change policies
Convention on Climate Change
• The Convention established two permanent
subsidiary bodies: the Subsidiary Body for
Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation
• These bodies give advice to the COP and
each has a specific mandate. They are both
open to participation by any Party and
governments often send representatives who
are experts in the fields of the respective
Convention on Climate Change
• The SBSTA’s task is to provide the COP with
advice on scientific, technological and
methodological matters.
• Two key areas of work in this regard are
promoting the development and transfer of
environmentally-friendly technologies, and
conducting technical work to improve the
guidelines for preparing national
communications and emission inventories.
Convention on Climate Change
• The SBI gives advice to the COP on all
matters concerning the implementation of the
• A particularly important task in this respect is
to examine the information in the national
communications and emission inventories
submitted by Parties in order to assess the
Convention’s overall effectiveness
Clean Development Mechanism
• Of the some flexibility mechanisms in the Kyoto
Protocol designed to engage the marketplace in
meeting the commitments of the developed
countries, the Clean Development Mechanism
(2003) is the only one that involves developing
• The CDM aims to direct private sector investment
into emissions-reduction projects in developing
countries while promoting sustainable development
in these countries.
• Kyoto Parties with emission targets for 2008-2012
are eligible to apply certified emission reduction
units from CDM-funded certified emission
reductions (CER) towards meeting their target in
and after 2000
Clean Development Mechanism
• The Clean Development Mechanism’s dual goals of
funding sustainable development while creating cost
effective greenhouse gas emission reductions can be
achieved only via carefully structured contracts
• The CDM is unique in that the commodity it delivers –
greenhouse gas emission reductions – requires no
physical infrastructure for placement into international
markets. Thus, if transaction costs and other barriers
can be minimized, it is theoretically possible for even
small-scale development projects to enhance revenue
flow to developing countries via the emerging market for
greenhouse gas reductions.
Clean Development Mechanism
• Purchasers of CERs will often be large, sophisticated
multinationals with significant experience in project
finance, commodity and derivative transactions.
• Some CER sellers will be multinationals as well, the
sustainable development component of the CDM means
local energy developers, community groups and even
NGOs may end up as counter-parties.
• These smaller and less sophisticated sellers will likely
require support to ensure that they engage in equitable
contractual arrangements. In order to successfully
execute a CDM transaction
Clean Development Mechanism
• In order to successfully execute a CDM transaction,
the buyer and seller need to reach agreement on an
appropriate structure for the transaction and an
appropriate contract for the transaction.
• The structure of the transaction specifies the timing
of cash payments by the buyer and the timing of CER
deliveries by the seller.
• It is important that the legal agreement protect both
the buyer and seller from the risk of nonperformance by the other party.
Clean Development Mechanism
• Trading in carbon emission credits is a part of
international agreements designed to combat climate
change, thus effectively creating a new ‘commodity’ in
international trade – one that is increasingly produced in
the developing countries and consumed by more
industrialized countries.
• UNDP advocates capacity development in all aspects of
relevant human, institutional and system-wide issues
and the creation of efficient and enabling environment
and institutions for the developing countries that are
producers of carbon credits.
Clean Development Mechanism
• This will ensure that they have favourable terms of trade
and ability to negotiate with the private sector and other
buyers as equal partners.
Clean Development Mechanism
UNDP’s commitment to climate change is reflected in two
UNDP energy priorities:
Energy Priority: Promoting clean energy technology
• Modern energy technologies are available that can
support win-win development options, addressing both
global environmental protection and local development
needs. These include modernised biomass, solar
photovoltaics, wind, hydrogen and other renewable
energy options. High-efficiency, super-clean carbonbased energy systems are part of win-win solutions.
• UNDP efforts in this priority area will support the
introduction and adaptation of low emissions
technologies that can support economic growth, social
development and environmental sustainability.
Clean Development Mechanism
Energy Priority: Increasing access to financing for energy
• As the majority of all new investments in energy will come
from non-ODA sources, this priority will focus on support
to enhance developing countries’ ability to attract
investment financing for sustainable energy options.
• With increasing international attention on climate change
issues, new energy financing opportunities are emerging.
For developing countries to take maximum advantage of
all these opportunities, information sharing and capacity
building mechanisms are needed
• UNDP will support developing countries’ efforts to shape,
learn about and participate in new energy financing
mechanisms including the Clean Development Mechanism