Download A/R in the CDM – recent issues

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Quest Workshop on Forestry and Climate Mitigation, 25-26 July 2005
Climate mitigation and avoided
Martina Jung
Forestry and the Kyoto
Annex I:
Mandatory: afforestation, reforestation,
Voluntary: forest management, cropland
and grazing land management,
Non-Annex I (CDM):
Only afforestation and reforestation
Forests and climate change
Tropical deforestation around 25 % of global
human-induced emissions in 1990‘s
Not addressed in Kyoto Protocol
Avoiding deforestation is more effective
climate mitigation strategy than A/R
(immediate effect, magnitude of emissions)
Other benefits: biodiversity conservation,
watershed protection etc.
Why was avoided deforestation
not included in the CDM?
Scale: emission reduction credits with
potential to flood the market
Uncertainties regarding baselines
Leakage, e.g. increased deforestation
outside project boundary, or at later
point in time
A proposal to address tropical
deforestation – the compensated
reduction approach
Presented at side event at COP 9
Discussed at post-2012 workshop in
Graz, March 2005
Papua New Guinea: voiced strong
support for credits from avoided
deforestation at UNFCCC seminar
Compensated reductionin a nutshell
If country reduces deforestation as compared to a
national deforestation baseline, certified emission
reduction credits are issued (sectoral crediting
Compensated reduction –
questions to be addressed
Host country liability for future emissions
from deforestation
Calculation of baseline (models)
How to avoid that degradation is happening
instead of deforestation?
Inclusion would have to be considered in
setting of emission targets of Annex I
Forestry post-2012 –
Project-based mechanisms vs. national
Lessons to be learned from forestry projects in first
commitment period/from ODA financed forestry
How much control do governments have over
Is forest conservation really as cheap as widely
Biofuels and carbon sequestration – trade offs and
spill-over effects?
Research needs?
Thank you!
Compensated Reduction
Santilli et al. (2003) Tropical deforestation
and the Kyoto Protocol: a new proposal
Schlamadinger et al (2004) Should we include
avoidance of deforestation in the international
response to climate change?
Forthcoming paper (output of Graz workshop)