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Transcript
An energy superpower in a
carbon constrained world
(What’s all the fuss?)
Tony Wood
5 March 2015
The world is committed to addressing climate change
Global energy-related CO2 emissions (Gt)
New policies
•
Global: limit the maximum
global average temperature
increase to no more than 2
degrees Celsius
•
EU: at least 40% domestic
reduction in emissions by 2030
•
USA: reduce CO2 emissions by
26%-28% below 2005 levels in
2025 and "to make best efforts
to reduce emissions by 28%."
•
China: achieve the peaking of
CO2 emissions around 2030 and
"to make best efforts to peak
early”
450 scenario
CO2 emissions in the PRC
Source: IEA WEO 2014; Asian Development Bank TA
2
Changing the demand outlook for fossil fuels
Global coal demand (Mtoe)
Current policies
New policies
450 scenario
If governments continue their current energy
and climate policies, and implement the ones
they have proposed, the energy path is one
that is consistent with a global temperature
increase of about 4 degrees Celsius.
Global gas demand (Mtoe)
Current policies
New policies
We have less than half our carbon
budget remaining and are set to
exhaust it by 2040
450 scenario
Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2014
3
Australia: A 2014 energy superpower
Coal:
• In 2013-14, Australia exported 375 million tonnes of black coal
• Australia accounted for 27 per cent of total world coal trade
• Coal export earnings were $40 billion, $17billion from thermal coal and
$23 billion from metallurgical coal
Gas:
• In 2013-14, Australia exported 24.1 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas
• Australia was the third largest LNG exporter
• LNG export earnings were $16 billion
• Additional 62 million tonnes of LNG capacity will make Australia the
largest exporter
Yet, to have 50% probability to stay below 2 degrees, the majority of
proven and probable fossil fuel reserves are unburnable
4
A company would have a risk management plan
•
DFAT: The Australian Government accepts the science of climate change and
supports national and global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Climate
change is a global problem that requires a global solution. In 2010, governments
agreed that emissions need to be reduced to ensure global temperature increases
are limited to below two degrees Celsius. All countries, including major emitters,
need to play a role in meeting this global goal.
•
Government:
• Unconditional target to reduce emissions below 2000 level by 5% by 2020
• Review of further action and targets in 2015
•
Climate Change Authority: minimum target of 15% by 2020, and a trajectory range
of 40-60% below 2000 levels in 2030.
•
The 2014 Energy Green Paper:
• Energy resources exports: $69 billion income, 123,000 people employed
• Most energy analysts confirm that coal will continue to be a major source of
global energy for decades to come. Coal and gas are integral to a continued
strong national economy
• Refers only to the IEA’s “New Policies” scenario – 4 degrees Celsius
• International commitments to post 2020 targets could have implications for the
composition of the global energy mix.
5
An energy superpower in a
carbon constrained world
(What’s all the fuss?)
Tony Wood
5 March 2015