Download Carbon account…… - Centre for Responsible Tourism

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report wikipedia, lookup

Public opinion on global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate change feedback wikipedia, lookup

Solar radiation management wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and poverty wikipedia, lookup

Global warming wikipedia, lookup

Citizens' Climate Lobby wikipedia, lookup

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme wikipedia, lookup

Politics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate engineering wikipedia, lookup

Climate governance wikipedia, lookup

Economics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference wikipedia, lookup

German Climate Action Plan 2050 wikipedia, lookup

Economics of climate change mitigation wikipedia, lookup

Mitigation of global warming in Australia wikipedia, lookup

Business action on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Low-carbon economy wikipedia, lookup

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change mitigation wikipedia, lookup

Views on the Kyoto Protocol wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in New Zealand wikipedia, lookup

Kyoto Protocol and government action wikipedia, lookup

Kyoto Protocol wikipedia, lookup

Emissions trading wikipedia, lookup

Climate-friendly gardening wikipedia, lookup

Biosequestration wikipedia, lookup

Decarbonisation measures in proposed UK electricity market reform wikipedia, lookup

Carbon pricing in Australia wikipedia, lookup

Carbon emission trading wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Climate Change: The
Implications for Carbon
Accounting and
Management in the Tourism
Sector
Paul Hooper & Rachel Dunk
Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment
Manchester Metropolitan University
8th International Conference on
Responsible Tourism
MMU 4th April 2014
Outline
• Mandate of action
• Guidance and options for footprinting and
accounting procedures
• The ‘tourism system’
• Implications for carbon accounts and emissions
mitigation
Tourism & Climate Change
Creates
Tourism
Impacts
Affect
Tourism Growth
Erxleben and Sallwey (2007)
UNWTO (2011)
Global Tourism and
Climate Change
• Tourism (including day-trips) is
responsible for 4.95% of global CO2
emissions
– Up to 14% if measured as radiative forcing
(The warming caused by CO2 and other GHGs).
• If tourism was a country it would be the
5th biggest polluter worldwide (similar to
Japan).
• Global tourism emissions projected to
grow by 152% by 2035.
Sources: Peeters and Dubois (2010); UNWTO-UNEP-WMO (2008)
Breakdown of tourism
emissions
Other activities
4%
Accommodation
21%
Other transport
3%
Car
32%
Air transport
40%
Radiative forcing
Accommodation
9%
Other activities
2%
Other transport
2%
Car
15%
Air transport
72%
Implications for Tourism
• Growing CC emissions from tourism in the
context of policy commitments to radical cuts
in GHG emissions
• Need to take efficient and effective actions
• Important to demonstrate carbon responsibility
• Case for growth is getting more difficult –
credibility crucial
Carbon account……
Activity data to carbon account
Determining carbon emissions requires data
on:
– The activity generating the carbon
emissions (quantity, type, organisation)
– The carbon output per unit activity.
This is usually expressed as an
emissions/conversion factor
Units of activity x EF = total CO2 generated
So what should be included
in a carbon account?
Scope Options – GHG Protocol
• Define three scopes (or boundaries) for
GHG/carbon emissions accounting
1. Direct GHG emissions from all sources owned
by the company (stationary and mobile
combustion)
2. Plus indirect GHG emissions from purchase of
electricity
3. Optional step – indirect emissions from
company’s upstream and downstream
activities (provides an ‘opportunity to be
innovative in GHG management’)
How far is far enough?
• Carbon Reduction Commitment
– mandates reporting for larger
organisations (>6000MWh)
– Focuses on fuels and electricity consumed
(i.e. Scope 1 & 2 emissions)
• However DEFRA Guidance:
– Sets no minimum size threshold
– Covers wider range of emissions
– Does not specify a minimum level of
reporting (emphasises completeness)
So what should be done
about Scope 3 Emissions
• Challenging given the variety of
organisations in the tourism sector
• Best to start with an appreciation of the
‘tourism system’ for completeness
• ICARB identified a range of system carbon
emission sources from:
– Inputs
– Outputs
– Outsourcing
• Inputs
–
–
–
–
Scope 3 Emissions for
Tourism
Food & drink
Cleaning materials
Visitor travel
Water supply
• Outputs
– Water
discharge/treatment
– Solid waste:
• Green waste
• Recyclates
• Landfill
• Outsourcing
– Laundry
– Accounting
– Maintenance/grou
nds keeping
– Cleaners
– Catering
– Entertainment
But this is too difficult, isn’t it?
So why take on Level 3?
• ACI International (2009) have
something to offer:
Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse
Gas Emissions Management
References
• ACI (International) (2009) Guidance Manual: Airport GHG Emissions
Management, ACI World Environment Standing Committee
• DEFRA (2013) Environmental Reporting Guidelines: including
mandatory GHG emissions reporting guidance.
• DEFRA GHG Conversion Factor Repository available at
www.ukconversionfactorscarbonsmart.co.uk/
• Erxleben, T. and Sallwey, L. (2007) The impact of current developments
on the baggage flow at airports and derived trends in airport logistics.
Elektroniczne czasopismo naukowe z dziedziny logistyki, 3 (1), No. 5.
• Peeters, P. And Dubois, G. (2010) Tourism travel under climate change
mitigation constraints. Journal of Transport Geography, 18 (3),447-457.
• UNWTO (2011) Tourism Highlights 2009 Edition. http://unwto.org
• UNWTO-UNEP-WMO (2008) Climate Change and Tourism: Responding
to Global Challenges. UNWTO, Madrid.
• WBCSD and WRI (2004) The Greenhouse Gas Protocol.