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Understanding Nutrition I. Types of Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Fats • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals • Water II. Simple Carbohydrates • • • • glucose - fruits & veggies fructose - fruits & veggies lactose - milk sucrose - sugar cane & sugar beets III. Complex Carbohydrates • starches - bread, pasta, potatoes • dietary fiber - non-digestible IV. Saturated Fats • solid at room temperature • they contain maximum number of hydrogen atoms. • Butter, margarine, animal fat, tropical oils V. Unsaturated Fats • liquid at room temperature • they lack one pair of hydrogen atoms • olive oil, peanut oil, vegetable oil VI. Cholesterol - found in animal fats A) L.D.L. - bad cholesterol that deposits on walls of blood vessels. B) H.D.L. - good cholesterol that removes L.D.L. from vessels and carries them to the liver or intestine. VII. Protein • • • • Provides energy needed to build and repair tissue Found in all tissues of the body inadequate intake will result in body taking from itself VIII. Incomplete Protein • Protein that does not contain all of the essential amino acids. – nuts – seeds – beans IX. Complete Protein • Proteins that contain all of the essential amino acids. – meat – fish – chicken – turkey X. Vitamins a) Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in fat and can be stored in the body (A,D,E, & K) b) Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are not stored in the body. • Promote growth • prevent disease • help change fats and carbohydrates into useable energy XI. Minerals • Essential to the body’s functioning • Used to regulate wide range of body processes. • Major Minerals: calcium, sodium, and potassium. • Trace Minerals: iron, iodine, and zinc. XII. Water • 70% of body’s make-up. • Carries dissolved nutrients throughout the body. • Aids in digestion, waste removal, and temperature regulation. • Consumption guideline: 1/2 ounce per pound of body weight. • Anything that is more than 10% “other” does not hydrate like water. XIII. Additives • Substances added to food to improve nutritional value, maintain freshness, or improve a food’s appearance, texture, or taste. XIV(A). Food Pyramid XIV(B). Balanced Program Protein 30% Fat 30% Carbohydrate 40% XV. Choosing healthy snacks • Select nutrient-dense foods. • Good choices - whole grain breads, low-fat yogurt, fruits and raw veggies. • Poor choices - chips, chocolate, soda.