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Transcript
IMMUNE SYSTEM
• THE BODY’S DEFENSE AGAINST
DISEASE-CAUSING ORGANISMS
• ALSO REMOVES DEAD AND
DAMAGED CELLS
• DESTROYS CELLS THAT ARE NOT
FUNCTIONING NORMALLY
THE FIRST LINE OF
DEFENSE
• THE SKIN AND THE SUBSTANCES IT
PRODUCES FORM A BARRIER
BETWEEN THE BODY AND IT’S
SURROUNDINGS
• PROTECTIVE REFLEXES SUCH AS
COUGHING OR SNEEZING
ENTRANCE OF DISEASE
• SOME DISEASE-CAUSING ORGANISMS
ENTER THROUGH A RIP OR TEAR IN THE
SKIN
• SOME ARE INHALED THROUGH THE AIR
– MUCUS AND CILIA TRAP AND GET RID OF
MOST
• SOME ENTER THROUGH THE MOUTH
– SALIVA IS LOADED WITH INVADERKILLING CHEMICALS
– STOMACH ACID GET THOSE THAT GET
PAST THE SALIVA
THE SECOND LINE OF
DEFENSE
THE BODY INCREASES THE BLOOD
SUPPLY TO THE AREA BEING
ATTACKED
– TINY WHITE BLOOD CELLS ATTACK
INVADING ORGANISMS AND GOBBLE
THEM UP
– WHITE BLOOD CELLS LEAVE THE
BLOOD AND ENTER NEARBY TISSUE
– LARGER WHITE BLOOD CELLS SOON
JOIN THEM DESTROYING HARMFUL
BACTERIA
INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
• DEAD BLOOD CELLS AND BACTERIA
– SKIN BECOMES RED AND SWOLLEN
JUST BELOW THE SURFACE
– IT IS HOTTER THAN THE SURROUNDING
SKIN
INFLAMMATION AROUND SPIDER
BITE
INTERFERON
• PRODUCED BY THE BODY CELLS
WHEN ATTACKED BY A VIRUS
– INTERFERES WITH THE REPRODUCTION
OF THE VIRUS
THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE
• ANTIBODIES – PROTEINS MADE BY
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
– SOME ARE ATTACHED TO CERTAIN TYPE
OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS
– OTHERS FLOAT AROUND IN THE BLOOD
• DESTROY HARMFUL INVADERS
• ATTACK A SPECIFIC KIND OF
INVADER
ANTIBODY ATTACKING AN
INVADER
• ANTIGEN – ANTIBODY GENERATOR
– SHAPED LIKE A “T”
• WHEN ACTIVE, SHAPED LIKE A “Y” THAT
BINDS IT TO THE ANTIGEN
• PREVENTS INVADERS FROM ATTACKING
THE CELLS
ANTIGENS
• THE ATTACHMENT OF ANTIBODIES
SLOW DOWN THE BACTERIA, FUNGI,
OR PROTOZOANS
– THEY ARE THEN GOBBLED UP BY THE
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
SOME ANTIBODIES BLAST A HOLE IN
THE OUTER COVERING OF THE
INVADER’S CELLS
ACTIVE “T” CELL
IMMUNITY
• THE NEXT TIME THE SPECIFIC
ANTIGEN INVADES – THE “T” CELLS
WILL BE READY AND YOU WILL NOT
GET SICK
• IMMUNITY – RESISTANCE TO A
DISEASE ORGANISM OR HARMFUL
SUBSTANCE
ACTIVE IMMUNITY
• YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM RESPONDS
TO AN ANTIGEN
• YOU GET THE DISEASE ONCE
BABY WITH CHICKEN POX
VACCINATION
ANTIGENS ARE DELIBERTELY
INTRODUCED TO STIMULATE THE
IMMUNE SYSTEM
– DEVELOPED FROM DISEASE-CAUSING
ORGANISMS THAT ARE KILLED OR
WEAKENED
– MOST INTRODUCED BY INJECTION
• SOME LIKE SABIN POLIO ARE TAKEN
THROUGH THE MOUTH
DR. SAULK
• LENGTH OF IMMUNITY VARIES WITH
THE DISEASE
• BOOSTER SHOT – REMINDS THE
BODY TO INCREASE PRODUCTION OF
ANITBODIES
PASSIVE IMMUNITY
• GET ANTIBODIES FROM ANOTHER
SOURCE
– MOTHER TO UNBORN CHILD THROUGH
THE PLACENTA
– CAN BE FROM AN ANIMAL LIKE A
HORSE
• ANTIBODIES REMOVED FROM THE ANIMAL
AND INJECTED INTO HUMAN
IMMUNE DISORDERS
• SOMETIMES THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
BECOMES OVERLY SENSITIVE TO A
FOREIGN SUBSTANCE
• CAN BE FOOLED BY INVADERS THAT
HIDE WITHIN IT’S CELLS
ALLERGIES
• OVERLY SENSITIVE TO CERTAIN
SUBSTANCES – ALLERGENS
• ANTIBODIES ARE PRODUCED THAT
RELEASE HISTAMINES
• HISTAMINES – CHEMICALS
RESPONSIBLE FOR SYMPTOMS
– GET SOME RELIEF FROM
ANTIHISTAMINES
AIDS
ACQUIRED
IMMUNE
DEFICENCY
SYNDROME
DISCOVERED IN THE UNITED STATES
IN 1983
HIV
HUMAN
IMMUNE
VIRUS
• HIV ENTERS THE BODY AND
ATTACKS THE “T” CELLS
• HIV EVADES ANTIBODIES BY
GROWING WITHIN THE CELLS THAT
MAKE UP THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
ONCE INSIDE A “T” CELL – IT
REPRODUCES AND DESTROYS THE “T”
CELL
KAPOSIS SARCOMA
• THE RESULT OF “T” CELLS BEING
DESTROYED IS THE BODY ALLOWS
DISEASE-CAUSING INVADERS TO
GROW AND MULTIPLY
– THESE REPEATED ATTACKS OF DISEASE
WEAKENS AND EVENTUALLY KILLS
PEOPLE
• HIV IS SPREAD BY DIRECT CONTACT OF
BODILY FLUIDS WITH AN INFECTED
PERSON
– THERE IS AN ALARMING INCREASE OF AIDS
AMONG SEXUALLY ACTIVE TEENAGERS
– SHARING NEEDLES CAN SPREAD THE DISEASE
– UNBORN BABIES CAN GET IT FROM THEIR
MOTHERS
• PRIOR TO 1985 – CONTAMINATED
BLOOD SPREAD THE DISEASE
THROUGH TRANSFUSSIONS
– MANDATORY SCREENING IS NOW IN
PLACE
DISEASES
INFECTIOUS DISEASE
• TRANSMITTED AMONG PEOPLE
• CAN BE TRANSMITTED BY ANIMALS,
AND NON-LIVING THINGS TOO
ANIMALS
• ANIMALS CAN SPREAD DISEASE TO
PEOPLE
– TICKS – LYME AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN
SPOTTED FEVER
– MAMMALS AND BIRDS - RABIES
TICKS
FOOD AND WATER
• FOOD POISONING – FOOD
CONTAMINATED WITH A CERTAIN
BACTERIA
• POOR SANITATION – HEPATITIS,
CHOLERA, AND TYPHOID FEVER
MICROORGANISMS
•
•
•
•
BACTERIA
VIRUSES
PROTOZOANS
FUNGI
• A COUGH OR SNEEZE EXPELS
DROPLETS OF MOISTURE THAT MAY
CONTAIN DISEASE-CAUSING
MICROORGANISMS
– SNEEZE – 5,000 DROPLETS TRAVEL AS
FAR AS 3.7 METERS
– IF YOU ARE NEAR YOU WILL BREATHE
IN THESE DROPLETS
EPIDEMIC
VERY CONTAGIOUS DISEASE THAT
SWEEPS THROUGH AN AREA
VIRUSES
• THE COMMON COLD, MEASLES,
CHICKEN POX, INFLUENZA, AND
MONONUCLEOSIS
• TINY PARTICLES INVADE LIVING
CELLS
– TAKE CONTROL OVER ALL ACTIVITIES
OF THE CELL
– USES THE CELL’S FUEL SUPPLY AND
REPRODCUTIVE MACHINERY
RUBELLA (MEASELS)
CHICKEN POX VIRUS
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED
DISEASES
• VIRUSES SPREAD THROUGH SEXUAL
CONTACT
– AIDS
– GONORRHEA
BACTERIA
• MOST ARE HARMLESS TO HUMANS
• INFECT TISSUES OF BODY DIRECTLY
– TUBERCULOSIS – GROWS INSIDE LUNG TISSUE
– CAUSES DIFFICULTY AND PAIN IN
BREATHING
TUBERCULOSIS IN THE LUNG
• SOME PRODUCE TOXINS
– TETANUS – LIVES IN DIRT
• ENTERS THROUGH BREAKS IN THE SKIN
• MUSCLES AFFECTED CAUSING VIOLENT
CONTRACTIONS ESPECIALLY OF THE JAW
(LOCKJAW)
NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES
• NOT CAUSED BY MICROORGANISMS
• CAUSED BY SUBSTANCES THAT
HARM OR IRRITATE THE BODY
– NOT EATING A BLANCED DIET
– WORRY OR TENSION
IMMUNE SYSTEM FAILS TO FUNCTION
PROPERLY
CANCER
• CAUSED BY CARCINOGENS
• SECOND LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH OF
NONINFECTIOUS DISEASE
• CELLS MULTIPLY UNCONTROLLABLY
DESTROYING HEALTHY TISSUE
• THE BODY’S OWN CELLS CAUSE THE
DISEASE
SKIN CANCER
THE CONTROL THAT REGULATES CELL
GROWTH MALFUNCTIONS
TUMOR
• MASS OF TISSUE
– BENIGN – NOT CANCEROUS
– MALIGNANT – CANCEROUS
• DESTROYS SURROUNDING TISSUE
• BREAKS AWAY AND IS CARRIED BY THE
BLOOD TO OTHER BODY PARTS WHERE IT
STARTS TO GROW
• DEVELOPS BECAUSE OF REPEATED
OR PROLONGED CONTACT WITH
CARCINOGENS
– SOME ARE INHERITED
TREATMENT
EARLY DETECTION IS THE MOST
IMPORTANT WEAPON
– SURGERY – REMOVE TUMOR BEFORE IT
SPREADS
– RADIATION THERAPY – DESTROYS
CANCER CELLS
– CHEMOTHERAPY – USE CHEMICALS TO
DESTROY CANCER CELLS
ALL TREATMENTS CAN BE USED
SEPARATELY OR IN COMBINATION
• RADIATION AND CHEMOTHERAPY
CAN INJURE NORMAL CELLS
– SIDE EFFECTS – NAUSEA AND HIGH
BLOOD PRESSURE
MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
• STRENGTHENS THE BODY’S IMMUNE
SYSTEM
– JOIN CANCER CELLS WITH ANTIBODYPRODUCING WHITE BLOOD CELLS
DIABETES MELLITUS
• BODY SECRETES TOO LITTLE INSULIN OR
IS UNABLE TO USE THE INSULIN IT DOES
SECRETE
• WITHOUT INSULIN – SUGAR CANNOT BE
USED BY THE CELLS TO PRODUCE
ENERGY
– THE BODY WILL USE IT’S OWN TISSUE FOR
FOOD
SYMPTOMS
• LOSS OF WEIGHT
• EXCESS URINE PRODUCTION
• WEAKNESS
• EXTREME HUNGER AND THIRST
JUVENILE ONSET
• USUALLY IN PEOPLE UNDER 25
– LITTLE OR NO SECRETION OF INSULIN
– TREATMENT – DAILY INJECTIONS OF
INSULIN AND A STRICT DIET
ADULT ONSET
• THE BODY CANNOT USE THE
INSULIN
• NORMAL AMOUNT SECRETED
• USUALLY CONTROLLED BY DIET