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DNA Replication, Translation, Transcription, & Mutations February 24, 2012 Do NOW! • Draw out the following flow chart: DNA Transcription RNA Translation Protein Reminders • Please turn in your Parent Contact Sheets • Please turn in your Microbiology Test Homework • Progress Reports go out very soon! • Today we are going to work together to be productive. If we are productive, then you will have an opportunity to play a fun game with our remaining time. It is a variation of game made up by one of the students in my 5th block. Agenda for 02/24 • DNA • • • • What is replication? What is translation? What is transcription? What is protein synthesis? • What about mutations? What is REPLICATION? • When a cell divides into two cells, each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the DNA. • REPLICATION is the process by which all of the DNA is copied before the cell divides. • REPLICATION results in two identical molecules of DNA. Each new cell will receive one of these molecules of DNA. Replication… • Remember how A pairs with T and G pairs with C? • The DNA unzips and each side is used as a template to produce a copy of the other half. The Nucleotides (A, G, T, C) are matched up with it’s corresponding pair. LET’S PRACTICE…What would be the corresponding code for….. TTGACTAACC? LET’S PRACTICE…What would be the corresponding code for….. CGCAACTAGG? LET’S PRACTICE…What would be the corresponding code for….. ATCGGCATTA? What is Transcription? • DNA uses a method know as TRANSCRIPTION to transfer the information from DNA into another molecule called RNA • Transcription doesn’t change the DNA, only reads it to create the RNA • RNA uses nucleotides as well… but one change…A-U-G-C Adenine-Uracil Guanine-Cytosine • The RNA is then read to make protein What is Protein Synthesis? • In PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, the RNA goes under a series of steps to create a protein molecule from a series of amino acids. • This happens in the RIBOSOMES. Remember the DO NOW? DNA Transcription RNA Translation Protein What about Mutations? • Sometimes during these processes, there is a mistake… (We all make mistakes, right?) • The result in this mistake is not always bad. It can produce: • A POSITIVE result—That’s a BENEFIT to the organism • A NEGATIVE result—That’s a DETRIMENT to the organism • NO result—That is NEUTRAL for the organism • Any change in DNA is called a MUTATION. This can produce a positive, negative, or neutral result. • Mutations are what gives individuals the vast amount of variation • The change can be minor (small) or major (large). Label the four sections of FOLDABLES: • REPLICATION • TRANSLATION • TRANSCRIPTION • MUTATION A QUICK TOOL TO PUT IN YOUR NOTEBOOK…. John H’s Science“Walmart” Game…. • You are going to split into teams…Boys on the window side of the classroom, girls on the computer side. • Each team will choose one member to come to the center of the room. I will give a letter out. You will give a science vocabulary word we have learned this year that starts with that word. You need to give a brief explanation of what it is/why it is important. • The first person to grab the purple duster gets to answer first. • If the first person answers incorrectly, then the second person gets a shot to steal the point.