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Chapter 22: Decent With Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
Name: ___________
Answer all the questions in complete sentences on a separate piece of paper. Your
answers must be neatly handwritten. Typed responses will NOT be accepted. Be
prepared for a test over this material the first week we return to school.
A. Reading Guide Questions: As you study this chapter, read several paragraphs at a
time to catch the flow of ideas and understand the reasoning that is being described. In
some places, the text describes a narrative or story of events that led to Darwin’s theory
of evolution. Read the narrative to absorb the big picture and then return to answer the
few questions that accompany this material.
1. James Hutton and Charles Lyell were geologists whose ideas strongly influenced Darwin’s
thinking. Describe the ideas each of them contributed.
2. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck proposed a mechanism for how life changes over time.
Explain the two principles of his mechanism.
a. use and disuse
b. inheritance of acquired traits
3. What does the phrase, “descent with modification” mean?
4. Compare and contrast artificial selection and natural selection.
5. Describe how the following concepts relate to Darwin’s theory of evolution by
natural selection: over reproduction of populations, limited resources, and
heritable variation.
6. Define
the following terms and give an example of each:
homologous structures
vestigial structures
analogous structures
7. Explain why an individual organism cannot be said to evolve.
8. Explain why the following statement is not accurate, “Antibiotics cause bacteria
to become resistant? Explain your response.”
9. What are at least three pieces of evidence that are commonly cited as evidence
that supports the concept that organisms have changed over time, and in what way
do they support the argument?
10. Define and provide examples of the following terms: homologous structure,
vestigial structure, analogous structure
11. How does Darwin’s theory account for both the similar mammalian forelimbs
with different functions shown in the first image below and the similar appearance
and adaptations exhibited by unrelated organisms that that fill similar niches in
different parts of the world as demonstrated by the second image below?
B. Your Understanding: Self Quiz
Answer the questions on pg. 452 (in the 7th edition or pg. 426 in the 5th edition) of Chapter
22. Answers must be in complete sentences and contain the letter answer. Refer to the
example for the required format:
Given the question:
Question 1: The best description of natural selection is
a. survival of the fittest.
b. the struggle for existence.
c. the reproductive success of the members of a population best
adapted to the environment.
d. the overproduction of offspring in environments with limited natural
e. a change in the proportion of alleles within a population.
Your answer should look like this:
1: The best description of natural selection is the reproductive success of the
members of a population best adapted to the environment (C).
A. Observable evolutionary change:
Go to the following website and read about John Endler’s work with guppies.
Explain how his work demonstrated observable evolutionary change.