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Review for Evolution Test
The Big Ideas
 Origin of elements
 Origin of life
 Fossil record and dating
 Darwin’s observations
 Mechanism of natural selection
 Evidence for evolution
 Speciation
 Classification and taxonomy
Terms you should be familiar with:
1. Oxygen (and early life forms)
2. Spontaneous generation
3. Biogenesis
4. Endosymbiotic theory
5. Relative and absolute fossil dating
6. Half-life
7. Natural selection
8. Biological species concept
9. Mutation
10. Fitness
11. Reproductive isolation
12. Taxonomy
13. Common ancestry
14. Clade
Provide answers to the following questions:
1. Whose work influenced Darwin’s thinking? What beliefs were held by most
people at Darwin’s time? How did his journey help to change his thinking?
2. How does descent with modification explain the diversity of life?
3. What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution?
4. How does natural selection lead to adaptation?
5. How do the forelimbs of a bat, whale, cat, and human contribute evidence to
support the hypothesis that these mammals evolved from a common ancestor?
6. Why are islands prime locations for new species to form?
7. Give an example of why two very similar organisms living in the same area
would fail to mate and share genes.
8. How can amino acid sequences show evolutionary relationships?
9. What is wrong with each statement?
a. Two populations of mice living on opposite sides of a river are separate
b. Lightweight bones evolved in birds so the birds could fly.
c. Individuals adapt to their environments and pass on the adaptations to
d. Homologous structures have the same function in unrelated species.
10. How does each of the following support the theory of evolution?
a. Homologous structures
b. Fossil record
c. Geographic distribution
d. Cellular structure and function
e. DNA structure and function
f. Amino acid sequencing
g. Embryology/development
h. Vestigial structures
11. Give an explanation for the trends you see in the graph above.
12. Explain how phylogenetic trees (cladograms) show evolutionary relationships.
13. Explain why each of the following is a vital characteristic of evolution:
Population growth
Genetic variability
Limited supply of resources
Natural selection