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Transcript
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Section 2: Mendel’s Theory
Preview
• Bellringer
• Key Ideas
• Explaining Mendel’s Results
• Random Segregation of Alleles
• Mendel’s Findings in Modern Terms
• Mendel’s Second Experiments
• Summary
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Bellringer
A gardener noticed that some of the flowers on her plants
were white. In previous years, they had been purple.
Write down a possible explanation for this difference.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Key Ideas
• What patterns of heredity were explained by Mendel’s
hypotheses?
• What is the law of segregation?
• How does genotype relate to phenotype?
• What is the law of independent assortment?
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Explaining Mendel’s Results
• Mendel developed several hypotheses to explain the
results of his experiments.
• These hypotheses are collectively called the Mendelian
theory of heredity and form the foundation of modern
genetics.
• Mendelian theory explains simple patterns of inheritance.
In these patterns, two of several versions of a gene
combine and result in one of several possible traits.
• Different traits result from different versions of genes.
Each version of a gene is called an allele.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Visual Concept: Allele
Click above to play the video.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Explaining Mendel’s Results, continued
• Each allele can lead to a unique trait.
• Traits can come from either parent because each pair of
alleles is separated when gametes form during meiosis.
• Only one of the pair is passed on to offspring.
Mendel and Heredity
Alleles
Section 2
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Explaining Mendel’s Results, continued
• An allele that is fully expressed whenever it is present is
called dominant.
• An allele that is not expressed when a dominant allele is
present is called recessive.
• A recessive allele is expressed only when there is no
dominant allele present.
• Traits may also be called dominant or recessive.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Visual Concept: Comparing Dominant
and Recessive Traits
Click above to play the video.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Random Segregation of Alleles
• Because chromosome pairs split randomly during
meiosis, either one of a pair of homologous
chromosomes might end up in any one gamete. Chance
decides which alleles will be passed on.
• In modern terms, the law of segregation holds that when
an organism produces gametes, each pair of alleles is
separated and each gamete has an equal chance of
receiving either one of the alleles.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Mendel’s Findings in Modern Terms
• Scientists use a code of letters to represent the function
of alleles.
• A dominant allele is shown as a capital letter. This letter
usually corresponds to the first letter of the word for the
trait.
• A recessive allele is shown as a lowercase letter.
• Offspring do not show a trait for every allele that they
receive. Instead, combinations of alleles determine traits.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Mendel’s Findings in Modern Terms,
continued
• The set of specific combinations of alleles that an
individual has for a character is called the genotype.
• The detectable trait that results from the genotype’s set
of alleles is called the phenotype.
• Thus, genotype determines phenotype.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Visual Concept: Genotype
Click above to play the video.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Visual Concept: Comparing Genotype
and Phenotype
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Mendel’s Findings in Modern Terms,
continued
• If an individual has two identical alleles of a certain gene,
the individual is homozygous for the related character.
• If an individual has two different alleles of a certain gene,
the individual is heterozygous for the related character.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Visual Concept: Comparing Homozygous
and Heterozygous Genotypes and
Resulting Phenotypes
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Mendel’s Second Experiments
• A dihybrid cross involves two characters, such as seed
color and seed shape.
• Mendel used dihybrid crosses in his second experiments
and found that the inheritance of one character did not
affect the inheritance of another character.
• In modern terms, the law of independent assortment
holds that during gamete formation, the alleles of each
gene segregate independently.
Mendel and Heredity
Dihybrid Crosses
Section 2
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Mendel’s Second Experiments, continued
• Genes are said to be linked when they are close
together on chromosomes.
• Scientists now know that many genes are linked to each
other as parts of chromosomes.
• Genes that are located close together on the same
chromosome will rarely separate independently.
• The only genes that follow Mendel’s law of independent
assortment are those that are far apart.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Summary
• Mendelian theory explains simple patterns of inheritance.
In these patterns, two of several versions of a gene
combine and result in one of several possible traits.
• In modern terms, the law of segregation holds that when
an organism produces gametes, each pair of alleles is
separated and each gamete has an equal chance of
receiving either one of the alleles.
• Genotype determines phenotype.
Mendel and Heredity
Section 2
Summary, continued
• In modern terms, the law of independent assortment
holds that during gamete formation, the alleles of each
gene segregate independently.