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HMS Beagle (1831-1836) “Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection” Organisms reproduce others of their own kind Overproduction of offspring Variations among offspring exist & some are inherited Organisms with “favoured” variations (adaptations) are more likely to survive & pass on these adaptations to their offspring Nature selects the “fittest” organisms to survive & reproduce Overtime, the survivors with the favorable characteristics will make up most of the population Essential for a species to change over time Some variations help an organism to survive better within its environment If an organism is able to survive, it will reproduce, which enables offspring & further generations to inherit these variations A variation (characteristic or trait) that allows an organism to survive & successfully reproduce is an Adaptation. Over time, the survivors with the favorable adaptations will make up most of the population Plant and animal breeders Artificial breeding Variations within corn and milk Selection made of the best Cabbage Selection for apical (tip) bud Brussels sprouts Selection for axillary (side) buds Broccoli Selection for flowers and stems Selection for stems Selection for leaves Kale Wild mustard Kohlrabi Charles Lyell, Geologist* Thomas Malthus, studied populations Concerned about overpopulation of humans Competition may occur as a result Jean Lamarck, French Evolutionist* Alfred Wallace, scientist with similar ideas* Charles Lyell “Principles of Geology” Earth was much older than previously thought. Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” Concerned about overpopulation of humans Competition may occur as a result not only for humans but other species Jean Lamarck Frenchman, Ideas of how Organisms form structures “Use or Disuse” Hypothesis Giraffes have long necks because they use & stretch them during their lifetime. Alfred Wallace Developed similar ideas at same time Scientist who Helped encourage Darwin to Publish his works. Survival of the Fittest 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Population has variations Some variations are favorable. More offspring are produced than survive. Those that survive have favorable traits. A population will change over time. Read carefully your assigned numbered scenario (s) [1,2,3,or 4] Identify Darwin’s 5 points for scenario(s) Pair share your results with your partner Be prepared to present your findings using white board Everyone reads and answers #5 DUE Today!!! Lab Format Title: Purpose: Hypothesis: (need leave space - do tomorrow) Materials: “as on sheet” Procedure: (write out a few notes as to what you will be doing tomorrow with fabric & beads; number of times, etc.) Data: (tape the data table into notebook) Which was the “fittest” in your habitat? Using “Darwin’s Natural Selection WS” can you fill in the 5 points in for your lab simulation example? Population has variations. Some variations are favorable. More offspring are produced than survive. Those that survive have favorable traits. A population will change over time. Is your worksheet complete? Let’s review any questions… All answer #5 Worksheet is collected today! Gregor Mendel – was doing his studies of genetics, but not available for Darwin’s theory Darwin & Mendel knew organisms had traits (characteristics), but did not know about DNA and genes that were inherited What causes the variation of beetles? What remains the same: Organisms undergo evolutionary change and are selected by their environments over time. The accumulation of many changes in a population (due to environmental pressures) that results in the evolution of one species of organisms into another over time. Genetic Variations exist within a population Organisms reproduce like-organisms & overproduce to increase survival rate Competition for Resources exists within an environment Individuals with “selected variations” are the most fit for the environment by surviving & reproducing (Survival of the Fittest) Accumulation of small changes over millions of years Cataloging and describing of fossils --- is a constructed history of life on Earth. See time table p51 Video clip… Pattern of periods of almost no change followed by a rapid burst of evolution Punctuated Equilibrium time Gradualism Complete disappearance of one type of organism Usually resulting from extreme environmental pressures, human or natural [See p52 examples] Organisms that have disappeared over time were not “inferior” in any sense to those that survived. Organisms that survive & reproduce are lucky to possess the selected variations or adaptations. Although natural selection is a potent force, some species become extinct by chance or by human intervention. It is not always a result of poor adaptations. Overproduction: Variation and Adaptations: There is genetic more offspring are produced than can survive creating a struggle for existence. variation among offspring & some variations increase survivability for current environment. Survival of the Fittest: Biological Evolution by Natural Selection: Nature ’selects’ those organisms whose adaptations allow them to survive & reproduce. Over time, the organisms with the “favorable” adaptations will make up most of the population.