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Organisms that are able to make their own food using light energy are
called producers or ______ ___________
Heterotrophs get their energy from consuming other_
The energy living things use is in the form of _______________
This means the energy is stored in the chemical ____ of compounds
like glucose and ATP
________________ = energy used to perform functions
****like ______________*****
The energy is ___ _____ when those bonds are broken
*Fig 8-3 on p203 (ATP as a charged battery)
CH 8: Photosynthesis
*Plants and some other living things use ______________energy
from the _________ to make food.
*_________(adenosine diphosphate) is a compound similar to ATP,
but it only has one __________________ group. When energy is
available, a cell can store small amounts of energy
by_____________a phosphate group to form ATP
ADP + ______
*Energy stored in ATP is _____________________ by breaking the
bon between the ____________ phosphate groups
ADP + P + Energy
Photosynthesis uses the energy from sunlight to convert water
(H20) and carbon dioxide (CO2) into high energy sugars (c6H12O6)
and oxygen (O2)
Photosynthesis Equation:
ENERGY + ________ + 6CO2
C6H12O6 + ________
glucose oxygen
Page 1 of 6
*think about it: doesn’t this equation make sense?
Plant use ___________________……..plants use carbon dioxide and
release ____________
In the equation the carbon dioxide is located in the ____________
side while oxygen is located in the _________________
Where do plants get the carbon dioxide from?
Plants use the _____________ produced in photosynthesis to make
bigger carbohydrates such as __________________
What pigment found in the _____________________ absorbs the
sun’s energy and also turns plants green by absorbing the other colors
in the spectrum (red, yellow, orange, blue, violet) and reflecting
green? ________________________
Inside the chloroplast are saclike _________________________ that
organize chlorophyll so it can collect the sun’s energy.
Photosynthesis occurs in _____ steps:
Step 1: _____________________________Reaction- produce
oxygen gas and convert ADP to NADP+ into ATP and NADPH
1. _________________ absorbs light in the red and blue/violet
regions of the visible light spectrum
2. The light energy generates ______________________
electrons which are converted into ATP
3. Some splits ____________into OXYGEN gas (O2),
Hydrogen Ions, and electrons
The majority is used by the cell to make ____________
(C6H12O6) in the next step
Step 2: _________________________________ (The Calvin Cycle)uses ATP and NADPH from light dependent reaction to produce high
energy sugars
1. Does not need _______________ to happen
2. Takes place in ________________ of the chloroplast
Page 2 of 6
3. Happens ______________________ during photosynthesis
to take CO2 and turn it into sugars
*Figure 8-7 on p 209 = overview
*Photosynthesis reverses entropy by creating HIGH energy ________
from ____________ energy compounds (H2O and CO2)
*photosynthesis can be effected by the amount of __________, water
and _____________________
It _______________ energy!!!
______________________ Equation:
ENERGY + 6H2O + 6CO2
C6H12O6 + 6O2
Chapter 9- Cellular Respiration
How much energy is actually present in food?
1g of glucose (sugar), when burned in the presence of
______________, releases 3811 calories of heat energy
___________- the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature
of 1g of water 1 degree Celsius
1000calories= 1 kcal or Calorie
Cellular Respiration: the process that
-occurs in the _________________________
C6H12O6 + ____
6CO2 + ______ + ENERGY
glucose oxygen
What does this equation look like? ___________________________
What is different? ___________________________________
*think about it: doesn’t this make sense?
Page 3 of 6
In photosynthesis……..plants used carbon dioxide and released
In that equation the carbon dioxide was located in the reactants side
while the oxygen was located in the products
In cellular respiration………. we use _____________(sugar) and
___________ to make energy. We release carbon dioxide and water.
Humans _________________ to help us make energy. (look at above
*Think about it: doesn’t this make sense?
If humans stopped breathing they could no longer make the energy
needed to perform basic functions like moving muscles
What is
Cellular Respiration occurs in 3 steps:
1. ____ _______
-occurs in cytoplasm
-produces _____________________________________
- also produces _________
______________________is the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of
pyruvic acid, producing 4 ATP molecules. An initial input of 2 ATP molecules is
required to start glycolysis; thus, there is a net gain of ___________ ATP
molecules. This process produces high-energy electrons, which are passed to
NAD+ forming 2 NADH. If oxygen is present, glycolysis leads to the Krebs cycle
and the electron transport chain. If ____________ is not present, glycolysis is
followed by the rest of fermentation.
Page 4 of 6
*****This term is called aerobic*****
2. _ _______________
-occurs in mitochondria
3. ___ ____________
-get _ ________
The ______________________________ uses the high-energy electrons from the
Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP. High-energy electrons are passed from one
carrier protein to the next. Every 2 high-energy electrons that move down the
chain result in enough energy to convert 3 ADP molecules to 3 ATP molecules, on
Cellular Respiration Produces _____________ total!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Glycolysis is followed by _____________________ if NO_____________________ IS PRESENT
****this term is called _________________*****
2 main types
1.)__________________________: produces carbon dioxide and
Examples: yeast – bread dough rising
2.)___________________________: produces lactic acid
Examples: lactic acid is produced in your muscles during
________________________when the body cannot produce enough
oxygen to the tissues
-causes painful, burning sensation
Both main types of fermentation (lactic acid and alcohol fermentation) release
energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.
Alcoholic fermentation occurs in yeasts and a few other microorganisms, and its
products are alcohol, CO2, and NAD+. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle
cells and some unicellular organisms, and its products are lactic acid and NAD+.
Page 5 of 6
Which pathway represents alcohol fermentation? __________ Lactic
acid fermentation? ________ Cellular respiration? __________
What huge difference do you notice between the pathways?
Page 6 of 6