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Chemical Reactions and Enzymes What is a chemical reaction? • Changes or transforms chemicals into other chemicals • Ex: Iron + Oxygen Iron Oxide (rust) • What is the product? • What are the reactants? Energy Is Required • Energy can be either given off or absorbed for a chemical reaction to occur • Identify the type of reaction as either endothermic or exothermic by the graphs to the right: Activation Energy • • Energy needed to start a reaction Identify the activation energy supplied for the following chemical reactions 1) Building a Fire 2) Turning on a Light 3) Starting a Car Catalyst • Any substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a reaction. Enzymes Baby!!!!!! • Describe what enzymes “do” using the graph below: Enzymes • Enzymes are proteins made by the cell to speed up the chemical reactions. Properties of Enzymes 1. Lowers activation energy 2. Speeds up a reaction 3. Can be used repeatedly 4. Shape specific (substrate)* *If shape is altered, enzyme cannot function Animations Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity • High Temperature (boiling ) • Extreme pH – (acid/base) • Changes enzyme shape Denaturing an Enzyme • A change in the shape of the active site on the enzyme What life molecule are enzymes a part of??? PROTEINS! • Enzymes = speed up reactions (to break down substances) • Substrate= a molecule which is acted upon by an enzyme (the reactant) “ase” • Enzymes have an ending “ase” • It helps you identify which one is the enzyme and which one is the substrate.