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Name: __________________________ Ecology Review Sheet 15-16 Directions: This review should be completed by using your Interactive Notebook (IAN). This review is worth +5 points on your Ecology test, if it is completed and turned in on time. 1. Put the following in order from smallest to largest: biome, community, biosphere, ecosystem, population a. Give an example of each term OR sketch a picture for each. Population (group of lions), community (lions and their prey – gazelles), ecosystem (includes all biotic & abiotic – like weather), biome (location defined by climate, plants), biosphere (region of earth where life can survive) Rock Fire Flower Rain 2. In the box to the right, underline the abiotic factors. Are the rest biotic? Explain. Wind Human The rest of the factors are biotic, because they are living Butterfly Jellyfish Dog Deer 3. What is the relationship between biodiversity and the stability in an ecosystem? The more biodiversity, the more stable and resilient ecosystems are to changes. 4. Give 2 examples of biotic and 2 examples of abiotic factors that could impact (change) ecosystem stability. Biotic: competition, predation, disease Abiotic: Temperature, levels of CO2 and O2, water availability 5. Explain how environmental changes such as algal bloom and deforestation could impact ecosystem stability. Algal bloom: affects oxygen levels, which kills fish, disrupting the entire food web Deforestation: loss of habitat disrupts the food web, can lead to succession to take place 6. Define biological magnification. Give a good example. It is the buildup of toxins in the upper trophic levels of a food chain. DDT (chemical pesticide that reduced the bald eagle population) 7. How do ecosystems heal themselves after an environmental change? Succession 8. What is ecological succession? 9. Primary succession starts with (barren rock; soil). Secondary succession starts with a (barren rock; soil). 10. Give examples of pioneer organisms that colonize barren rock after a disturbance such as a volcano eruption. Lichens and mosses 11. What events (disturbances) cause primary and secondary successions? Primary: volcano eruption (new rock formed without existing soil) Secondary: deforestation, a forest fire (existing soil present) 12. How could forest fire change populations in the ecosystem? Burn the mature plants, leaving only smaller plants. Allows new plants to move in. How could forest fire change species diversity in the ecosystem? It drastically decreases diversity- the mature plants (trees, shrubs, etc) are replaced with only highly adapted plants (grasses) 13. What is a climax community? Mature, self-sustaining, diverse stable succession (ex. Mature forest with pines and oaks) 14. Draw a food chain that includes 4 organisms. a. Label the producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer b. Label each link as an autotroph, omnivore, herbivore or carnivore Grass (producer) grass hopper (primary) bird (secondary) snake (tertiary) AUTOTROPH HERBIVORE CARNIVORE CARNIVORE 15. Where is the most efficient place for you to eat in a food chain? The algae (would get most of the energy provided by the sun – 10%) 16. What do the arrows indicate in the food chain in the question #15? Flow of energy 17. In an ecosystem matter (cycles; flow) and energy (cycles; flow). 18. How much energy is transferred between trophic levels? 10% What happens to the rest of energy? Lost as heat 19. Where is there the most amount of energy available in a food chain or food web? Producer level (bottom) 20. Define niche. An organisms role (“job”) in the environment 21. What is habitat? The specific environment an organism lives in (ex: desert habitat) 22. Of the following, which does not cycle through the environment? Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Water and Energy 23. What is symbiosis? Living together – at least one organism benefits 24. What is a competition? Competition occurs when two organisms fight for the same resources. Such as two different species of animals competing for the same food. 25. Give an example of predator-prey relationship. Lion and zebra. 26. If the population of prey decreases then the predator population will also decrease. Why? b/c of lack of food. 27. What is the difference between predation and parasitism? Predator kills the prey for food. Parasites need the host for food, shelter, etc. – weakens the host, but does not intentionally kill it. 28. Label each of the examples below as: mutualism, parasitism or commensalism a. bees pollinate flowers and eat the nectar mutualism b. ticks suck the blood of a dog parasitism c. caterpillars eat the leaves of trees parasitism d. a remora swims with a shark and eats food scraps commensalism MAKE UP your own: ____________________________________________________ 29. Give examples of decomposers. Fungi and bacteria What is their job? Chemically breakdown organic matter aid in nutrient recycling. 30. Organisms, populations, and communities respond to external stimuli - factors (something that cause a response) There are biotic and abiotic factors. Why do some animals migrate south in the winter? Avoid cold. What external factor do these animals respond to? Low temperatures. Why do they respond? Maintain homeostasis 31. What role do microorganisms such as E-coli bacteria play in keeping our large intestine healthy? Bacteria help us get nutrients out of some food that we would not be able to digest all on our own. They produce vitamin K – aids in blood clotting. What role do microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria and fungi play in disrupting the health of organisms? Give an example. Some bacteria can cause strep throat. Fungi infect skin and nails. 32. Draw a graph that represents exponential growth a. Does this happen in nature? no b. Are there limiting factors present in the environment? yes 33. Draw a graph that represents logistic growth a. Does this happen in nature? yes b. Label the feature that represents the carrying capacity. c. Are there limiting factors present in the environment? yes d. Label the portion of the graph that shows exponential growth first section, in bracket 34. What is carrying capacity? It is the maximum population size that environment can support – size of population at which a population can no longer grow due to lack of supporting resources. 35. What variations and adaptation would you expect to see in plants in the tundra? Plants are small – roots cannot penetrate the permafrost. Some plants are covered with hair – help keep them warm. 36. What variations and adaptations would you expect to see in animals in the desert? Many animals migrate during the dry season to search for water. Animals borrow for protection from the heat and lack of water. Active at night (nocturnal) to avoid heat. 37. In which chemical cycle does photosynthesis play a role, carbon or nitrogen? Carbon 38. What could happen if a carbon cycle is disrupted by burning fossil fuels? Burning fossil fuels, like coal, oil, and natural gas, releases carbon dioxide into the upper atmosphere. The carbon dioxide gas is a greenhouse gas that acts like a blanket, trapping heat in our atmosphere. 39. What is nitrogen fixation? When nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert unusable nitrogen molecules (like ammonia) into useable nitrogen (like nitrates) for plants 40. What could happen if the nitrogen cycle is disrupted? All organisms need to build proteins. Disrupting N-cycle will affect plants and their ability to make proteins will affect heterotrophs.