... Ecology Quiz 3 Study Guide
Types of mutualisms (Trophic,Defensive, Dispersive)
Examples of mutuatlistic relationships
Characteristics of Communities
Diversity –components of
Diversity indices (Shannon-Weiner & Simpson’s)
... Preservation of the biosphere is essential for
the preservation of the conditions in which
human evolved and flourished.
Human dilemma: Keep usurping the
resources on earth or allow a biotic diversity
General loss of biotic diversity : from local
pollution to global industrial activi ...
... Heterotrophs and autotrophs (photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs)
Primary, secondary consumers, etc. Roles/niches
Herbivores and carnivores. Their roles/niches
Matter and Energy movement through ecosystems and their differences
Photosynthesis vs. Cell Respiration: reactants, products, organisms that ...
... Ecosystems are delicately balanced but they can change over
time. This may be because new plants arrive, the climate
changes or because of human activity.
In most of the populated areas of the world, the natural
vegetation has been cleared, often by fire.
When trees are cut down or grasses are ploug ...
... negatively affected the environment in
the past is that humans have
1. frequently lacked an understanding of how
their activities affect the environment
2. passed laws to protect certain wetlands
3. attempted to control their population
4. discontinued the use of certain chemicals
used to con ...
... • At what rate does this happen (cycling through the
– Depends on a number of processes…
– Particularly: primary productivity, and
– Both of these are influenced by environment
... 3. What are heterotrophs? Why do we call them consumers?
4. List the different types of heterotrophs? On what basis to we classify them?
5. Compare and contrast a food chain with a food web.
6. Explain the term “trophic level”
7. What is the 10% rule as it relates to energy transfer in a food chain? ...
... the thin zone around the outside of the
Earth that contains all living things.
The biosphere contains self-sustaining ecosystems
composed of biotic and abiotic factors.
Abiotic factors are those components of the
ecosystem that are not living, but are integral in
determining the number and types ...
... Introduction. Resource extraction and development is expected to increase as the Arctic becomes more
accessible through climate change, especially in regions along the Hudson Strait and the Davis Strait.
Economic growth may result in elevated atmospheric emissions of sulphur, nitrogen, and heavy met ...
... Reservoir- a place where nutrients stay
for a long period of time.
Exchange pool- a place where the
nutrient stays for a short period of time
Residency time-the time a nutrient stays
in the R or EP.
Law of conservation of matter- matter
cannot be created or destroyed
... and parasites. These services are not only essential to the functioning of natural
ecosystems but constitute an important resource for the sustainable management of
The soil community which performs these functions is extremely diverse, often with more
that 1000 species of i ...
... 2. What does the law of conservation of mass mean?
3. What element is the basic building block of all organic molecules?
4. How do plants directly interact with carbon in the carbon cycle?
5. What are some carbon storage reservoirs?
6. Where do phytoplanktons obtain their carbon to construct shells? ...
... Ø The
... Nitrogen is the macro nutrient that is required in the largest amount by plants, its availability is therefore
decisive to crop growth, yield and quality.
Nitrogen is utilised for:
• The formation of amino acids.
• The production of nucleic acids.
• The formation of chlorophyll.
Nitrogen generall ...
... 10. Organisms need nitrogen to build ______________________.
11. Phosphorus is usually present as ______________________
______________________ in soil and rock.
12. The process of combining nitrogen gas with hydrogen to form ammonia is
called ______________________ ______________________.
13. Nitro ...
Human impact on the nitrogen cycle is diverse. Agricultural and industrial nitrogen (N) inputs to the environment currently exceed inputs from natural N fixation. As a consequence of anthropogenic inputs, the global nitrogen cycle (Fig. 1) has been significantly altered over the past century. Global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) mole fractions have increased from a pre-industrial value of ~270 nmol/mol to ~319 nmol/mol in 2005. Human activities account for over one-third of N2O emissions, most of which are due to the agricultural sector. This article is intended to give a brief review of the history of anthropogenic N inputs, and reported impacts of nitrogen inputs on selected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.