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Transcript
Verb inflexions and their function
(17)
161
Var› engi uppreist ímóti konungi gƒr
‘No rebellion was made against the king’
Var› is 3rd sg. past indic. of strong ver›a (type 3, but irregular, see 3.6.7);
together with gƒr, pp. of gøra/gera (weak type 3, but irregular, see 3.6.7), it
forms a passive construction (see (9)). Ver›a, as well as vera, may be used as
the equivalent of English ‘be’ in passive verb phrases (see further 3.9.7.2). On
the use of the indicative, see (1) and (2).
(18)
fió at flú ver›ir rei›r, flá mældu fátt
‘Though that you become angry, then speak-you little’
‘Though you become angry, yet say little’
Ver›ir is 2nd sg. present subj. of strong ver›a (type 3, see 3.6.7). The conjunction fló at or flótt (3.8.2.2), which introduces the first sentence, automatically
triggers a subjunctive verb-form since it mostly presupposes a hypothetical
situation. Mældu (mæl + flú, with partial assimilation lfl > ld, see 3.2.1) is the
imperative of mæla (weak type 3) with the subject pronoun attached; it expresses an instruction.
(19)
Eigi vil ek, at flit hittizk optarr
‘Not want I that you [dual] meet-sk more-often’
‘I do not want you two to meet again’
Vil is 1st sg. present indic. of weak vilja (type 1, but irregular, see 3.6.7, 3.6.9.1
point (11)). As a modal auxiliary, it is regularly followed by an inf., but here
that is replaced by the dependent sentence at flit hittizk. Hittizk is 2nd pl. present
of hitta (weak type 3) with the -sk suffix (›s being written ‘z’). The sense of -sk
here is reciprocal: ‘meet each other’. The mood of the verb cannot be deduced
from the form, but it is almost certainly subj., determined by the sense of the preceding independent sentence: that which is wanted or wished for is hypothetical.
(20)
Ætla›a ek flá, at ek mynda hvergi fless koma, at ek mynda
fless gjalda, at ek væra of fri›samr vi› óvini mína, en nú
geld ek fless, er ek hefi flér gri› gefit
‘Thought I then, that I would nowhere of-that come that I
would for-that pay, that I was too peaceful towards enemies
my, but now pay I for-that, that I have to-you quarter given’
‘I never thought then I would get into a situation where I
would pay for being too easy on my enemies, but now I am
paying for having given you quarter’