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Transcript
Verb inflexions and their function
155
3.6.7 Preterite presents and other irregular verbs — Exercise
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the meaning of the term ‘preterite present’?
What inflexional features characterise preterite present verbs?
What function do many preterite present verbs have?
Study the principal parts of kunna (above), and then give the following forms: 2nd person sg. and pl. present indic., 1st pl. present
subj., 3rd pl. past indic. and subj.
5. What forms do vilja and vera have in common with preterite present
verbs?
6. What is unusual about the inflexion of (a) gróa, (b) valda, (c) hafa?
3.6.8 Examples of verb usage
Following the same procedure as for other word classes, examples are
now given of verbs in function. With the vast range of verbal forms
and functions that exists, only a selection can be illustrated, with the
emphasis on the most common types. Equally, because so many different features are involved — person and number, tense, mood, voice,
-sk forms, periphrastic constructions — and several features combine
in the one verb phrase, it has proved difficult to order the examples in
any meaningful way. Note that the verbal inflexions being illustrated
(or the whole word where there is no difference from the root of the
infinitive or an inflexion cannot easily be discerned) are printed in
bold type. To underline the grammatical relations involved, bold is
also used for the subject, which triggers the person and number form
in the verb. Compare the inflexions used below with those set out and
discussed in 3.6.5, 3.6.6 and 3.6.7.
(1)
Hann b‡r fer› sína ok fór til Nóregs
‘He prepares journey REFL. POSS. and went to Norway’
‘He gets ready to depart and went to Norway’
B‡r is 3rd sg. present indic. of the strong verb búa (minor type). Fór is 3rd sg.
past indic. of the strong verb fara (type 6). Indicative is used because factual
statements are being made about what happened. The abrupt change from
present to past tense is characteristic of Old Norse prose style.