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The Gerund As it is in English, in Latin the gerund is a verbal noun. The English gerund is the verb + -ing. It has basic noun functions: subject, direct object, and object of prepositions. Running is one of my favorite pastimes. Finally, I stopped wasting time. He spent many hours in reading. Troy was defeated by building a huge wooden horse. The formation of the gerund for regular verbs in Latin is as follows: If the verb is of the First Conjugation, find the root and add –and- + neuter singular, second declension endings. There is no nominative. If the verb is of any other conjugation, find the root and add –end- + neuter singular, second declension endings. There is no nominative. voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus, call: [root = voc-] Nom. --- --- Gen. vocandi of calling Dat. vocando to/for calling Acc. vocandum calling Abl. vocando from/by/with/in calling moneo, monere, monui, monitus, warn: [root = mon-] Nom. --- --- Gen. monendi of warning Dat. monendo to/for warning Acc. monendum warning Abl. monendo from/by/with/in warning rego, regere, rexi, rectus, rule: [root = reg-] Nom. --- --- Gen. regendi of ruling Dat. regendo to/for ruling Acc. regendum ruling Abl. regendo from/by/with/in ruling capio, capere, cepi, captus, take: [root = capi-] Nom. --- --- Gen. capiendi of taking Dat. capiendo to/for taking Acc. capiendum taking Abl. capiendo from/by/with/in taking audio, audire, audivi, auditus, hear: [root = audi-] Nom. --- --- Gen. audiendi of hearing Dat. audiendo to/for hearing Acc. audiendum hearing Abl. audiendo from/by/with/in hearing The gerund for all irregular verbs except eo, ire and its compounds is formed according to the Third Conjugation rule: fero, ferre, tuli, latus, carry: [root = fer-] Nom. --- --- Gen. ferendi of carrying Etc. The gerund for the irregular verb eo, ire, ivi, iturus, go, is formed on the root e-, as follows: Nom. --- --- Gen. eundi of going Dat. eundo to/for going Acc. eundum going Abl. eundo from/by/with/in going The gerund for any deponent verb is formed regularly according the the conjugation number of the verb. conor, conari, conatus sum, try: Nom. --- --- Gen. conandi of trying Etc. [root = con-] vereor, vereri, veritus sum, fear: Nom. --- --- Gen. verendi of fearing sequor, sequi, secutus sum, follow: Nom. --- --- Gen. sequendi of following patior, pati, passus sum, suffer: Nom. --- --- Gen. patiendi of suffering largior, largiri, largitus sum, bestow: Nom. --- --- Gen. largiendi of bestowing [root = ver-] [root = sequ-] [root = pati-] [root = largi-] Case Functions of the Gerund Case Function(s) Example Nom. --- --- Gen. (a) Objective Puer amorem pugnandi habet. The boy has a love of fighting. (b) Purpose Milites ex castris causa pugnandi excesserunt. The soldiers left the camp for the purpose of fighting. Milites ex castris gratia pugnandi excesserunt. The soldiers left the camp for the sake of fighting. Dat. With Special Adjective Locum idoneum pugnando invenit. He found a place suitable for fighting. Case Function(s) Example Acc. Purpose Milites ex castris ad pugnandum excesserunt. The soldiers left the camp for the purpose of fighting. Abl. (a) Means Miles hostem pugnando vicit. The soldier defeated the enemy by fighting. (b) Place Where Miles in pugnando vulneratus est. The soldier was wounded in the fighting. Special Notes about the Gerund 1. When the gerund is used with causa or gratia to express purpose, causa and gratia must be in the ablative singular; their function is Ablative of Cause. 2. Generally speaking, gerunds can only be made from intransitive verbs; a gerund from a transitive verb becomes a passive verbal adjective (a gerundive) in Latin, and would modify the noun receiving its action.