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The Gerund
As it is in English, in Latin the gerund is a verbal noun. The
English gerund is the verb + -ing. It has basic noun functions: subject,
direct object, and object of prepositions.
Running is one of my favorite pastimes.
Finally, I stopped wasting time.
He spent many hours in reading.
Troy was defeated by building a huge wooden horse.
The formation of the gerund for regular verbs in Latin is as
follows:
If the verb is of the First Conjugation, find the root and add –and- + neuter
singular, second declension endings. There is no nominative.
If the verb is of any other conjugation, find the root and add –end- + neuter
singular, second declension endings. There is no nominative.
voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus, call:
[root = voc-]
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
vocandi
of calling
Dat.
vocando
to/for calling
Acc.
vocandum
calling
Abl.
vocando
from/by/with/in calling
moneo, monere, monui, monitus, warn:
[root = mon-]
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
monendi
of warning
Dat.
monendo
to/for warning
Acc.
monendum
warning
Abl.
monendo
from/by/with/in warning
rego, regere, rexi, rectus, rule:
[root = reg-]
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
regendi
of ruling
Dat.
regendo
to/for ruling
Acc.
regendum
ruling
Abl.
regendo
from/by/with/in ruling
capio, capere, cepi, captus, take: [root = capi-]
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
capiendi
of taking
Dat.
capiendo
to/for taking
Acc.
capiendum
taking
Abl.
capiendo
from/by/with/in taking
audio, audire, audivi, auditus, hear:
[root = audi-]
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
audiendi
of hearing
Dat.
audiendo
to/for hearing
Acc.
audiendum
hearing
Abl.
audiendo
from/by/with/in hearing
The gerund for all irregular verbs except eo, ire and its compounds is formed
according to the Third Conjugation rule:
fero, ferre, tuli, latus, carry:
[root = fer-]
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
ferendi
of carrying
Etc.
The gerund for the irregular verb eo, ire, ivi, iturus, go, is formed on the root
e-, as follows:
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
eundi
of going
Dat.
eundo
to/for going
Acc.
eundum
going
Abl.
eundo
from/by/with/in going
The gerund for any deponent verb is formed regularly according the the
conjugation number of the verb.
conor, conari, conatus sum, try:
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
conandi
of trying
Etc.
[root = con-]
vereor, vereri, veritus sum, fear:
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
verendi
of fearing
sequor, sequi, secutus sum, follow:
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
sequendi
of following
patior, pati, passus sum, suffer:
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
patiendi
of suffering
largior, largiri, largitus sum, bestow:
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
largiendi
of bestowing
[root = ver-]
[root = sequ-]
[root = pati-]
[root = largi-]
Case Functions of the Gerund
Case
Function(s)
Example
Nom.
---
---
Gen.
(a) Objective
Puer amorem pugnandi
habet. The boy has a love
of fighting.
(b) Purpose
Milites ex castris causa
pugnandi excesserunt.
The soldiers left the camp
for the purpose of fighting.
Milites ex castris gratia
pugnandi excesserunt.
The soldiers left the camp
for the sake of fighting.
Dat.
With Special Adjective Locum idoneum pugnando
invenit. He found a place
suitable for fighting.
Case
Function(s)
Example
Acc.
Purpose
Milites ex castris ad pugnandum
excesserunt. The soldiers left the camp
for the purpose of fighting.
Abl.
(a) Means
Miles hostem pugnando vicit.
The soldier defeated the enemy by
fighting.
(b) Place Where Miles in pugnando vulneratus est.
The soldier was wounded in the fighting.
Special Notes about the Gerund
1.
When the gerund is used with causa or gratia to express purpose, causa
and gratia must be in the ablative singular; their function is Ablative of
Cause.
2.
Generally speaking, gerunds can only be made from intransitive verbs; a
gerund from a transitive verb becomes a passive verbal adjective (a
gerundive) in Latin, and would modify the noun receiving its action.