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Biology Genetics Review Sections 11.1-11.4, pages 335-337, 339-340 To prepare for the test, go back and review: All assigned sections Practice problems Handouts and class activities Other 1. Define trait, loci, gene, allele. 2. Explain why the blending hypothesis was eventually rejected as the method of inheritance? 3. Describe Mendel’s particulate hypothesis of inheritance. 4. What characteristics make pea plants ideal organisms for genetic studies? 5. What does it mean to be true-breeding? 6. Differentiate between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes. 7. How many alleles does it take to show a dominant trait? 8. Be able to conduct monohybrid crosses and determine genotypic and phenotypic ratios. 9. How are testcrosses used to determine unknown genotypes? 10. Be able to analyze a pedigree and explain how traits are passed. 11. Do harmful disorders have to be recessive? 12. Be able to conduct dihybrid crosses and determine genotypic and phenotypic ratios. 13. Explain the Law of Segregation. 14. Explain Mendel’s principle of independent assortment. 15. Be familiar with the “Exceptions” to Mendel’s Rules (5-6). (Why are they exception?) 16. Be able to conduct Punnett Square crosses involving exceptions to Mendel’s Rules. 17. Why are some alleles written as a letter/symbol as an exponent on a base letter? 18. What is unique about a heterozygous individual exhibiting Incomplete Dominance (intermediate inheritance)? 19. What does it mean for alleles to be Codominant? 20. What is a good example of a trait that is controlled by both Codominance and Multiple alleles? 21. How does polygenetic inheritance differ from having multiple alleles? 22. Explain the role of the environment in determining an organism’s phenotype. 23. Which chromosomes are important for sex-linked inheritance? 24. Which sex is more often affected by sex-linked disorders? Why?