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Evolution at the DNA Level
Natural Selection and Alleles
• We saw how natural
selection impacts the
frequency of alleles
for a SINGLE gene
• What about polygenic
traits, where
individuals have more
than two genes for a
Types of Selection
Directional Selection: individuals at one
phenotypic extreme have lower fitness
than those in the middle.
Types of Selection
• Stabilizing Selection: individuals at both
phenotypic extremes have lower fitness
than those in the middle.
Types of Selection
• Disruptive Selection: individuals at
phenotypic extremes have higher fitness
than those in the middle.
Hardy-Weinberg Principle
• Alleles in a population will stay in genetic
equilibrium (no net change) unless:
– Mating is not random
– Population is small
– Immigration or emigration occur
– Mutations occur
– Natural selection occurs
Any of these five things will cause a population
to evolve!