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DNA, RNA, Proteins & GE Learning Outcomes
DNA, RNA and Proteins
A gene is a small section of a chromosome made up of DNA
The 4 DNA bases are A, T, G, C and these make up the genetic code
mRNA copies the DNA code for making the protein inside the nucleus
The structure of a protein is important for its function as proteins have a
specific shape e.g. enzymes fit specifically to one substrate
Proteins can be structural, enzymes, hormones or antibodies
The basic structure of DNA in is a double stranded helix made up of
complementary DNA bases & a backbone
The base A pairs with T, and the base G pairs with C
The order(sequence) of DNA bases codes for the order of amino acids in a
mRNA carries the DNA protein code from the nucleus to a ribosome
Proteins are made (assembled) at a ribosome from amino acids
The order of Amino Acids determines the shape and function of the protein
Examples of other protein molecules and their importance:Haemoglobin – carries oxygen, Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide
Genetic Engineering & Proteins
 Genes carry the code for making proteins
 In Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering is used to transfer genes from one
organism into another organism.
 Steps in Genetic Engineering
1. The gene is identified (e.g. Human insulin)
2. The gene is extracted from the chromosome
3. The gene is inserted into a vector/bacterial plasmid
4. The plasmid is put into a host cell (e.g. bacterium)
5. Growth of transformed cells occur
6. Organisms which have had additional genes inserted into them are
called Genetically Modified (GM) Organisms