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Transcript
Chapter 7 –
The Roman World
(1000 BC – AD 476)
Section 1:
Founding the Roman Republic
Geography and Location
Sheltered by Alps to north
Peninsula made it easy to control
east and west in region
Apennine Mountains run length of
Italy, but are not very rugged –
made trade and travel easy
Long coastline made it open to sea
attack
Rome was built on Tiber River, about
15 miles inland from coast
Protected city from invasion by
sea
Economic advantages – river
shallow here, easy to cross; Rome
at center of trade routes that
spread in all directions
Founding of Rome
 2000 BC – waves of invaders overran
peninsula from north
 mid-700s BC – Latins moved into westcentral Italy
 Their villages later united to form Rome
 late 600s BC – Rome came under rule of
Etruscan kings from northern Italy
 Romans adapted Etruscan written language
 Etruscans were skilled craftsmen
 Knew how to pave roads, drain marshes, and
construct sewers
Under Etruscans, Rome grew large
and prosperous
Greeks also settled in southern Italy
and Sicily
Greek culture strongly influenced
Romans
Early Roman Republic
509 BC – wealthy landowners
overthrew Etruscan king
Established a republic where
adult male citizens could vote
and take part in government
Rome: Democracy or
Republic?
 Rome was different from Athens because
male citizens elected representatives
(Consuls, Senators, Tribunes, Assemblies)
who ran the government, made the laws
and elected the judges.
 These people “represented” the wishes of
the people in a system called a republic.
So the people did not directly vote for
what they wanted – it was a
representative democracy.
Romans were divided into 2
classes:
1.Patricians (5%)
powerful landowners who
controlled government
inherited power
2.Plebeians (95%)
most of the population
mainly farmers
could vote but were barred from
holding office
Conflict of the Orders
Over time, Plebeians increased power
through demands and strikes
Gained rights to join army, hold office,
form assembly, and elect tribunes
Forced government to write down laws
(“Twelve Tables”)
By 300 BC, there was no longer
distinction between the two groups
Twelve Tables:
TABLE I
Procedure: for courts and
trials
TABLE II
Trials, continued.
TABLE III
Debt
TABLE IV
Rights of fathers
(paterfamilias) over the
family
TABLE V
Legal guardianship and
inheritance laws
TABLE VI
Acquisition and possession
TABLE VII
Land rights
Torts and delicts (Laws of
injury)
Public law
Sacred law
Supplement I
Supplement II
TABLE VIII
TABLE IX
TABLE X
TABLE XI
TABLE XII
The Republic Grows
By 265 BC, Romans controlled
southern ¾ of Italy
Policies:
Granted full citizenship to inhabitants
of nearby cities
Allowed distant allies to remain
independent, but required them to
provide soldiers for Roman army
Policies:
Conquered people were required to
provide land for Roman farmers
helped Romans maintain control
spread Latin language, Roman law, and
culture
Section 2:
Rome Expands
Its Borders
 Carthage (Phoenician colony) was a
great commercial power on coast of
North Africa
had colonies and markets on Sicily
empire spanned western Mediterranean
 Carthage feared Romans would take Sicily
 Romans feared Carthage would control
Mediterranean and prevent expansion
These fears led to 3 conflicts called
the Punic Wars
Punic is Latin version of Phoenician
The Punic Wars
All three wars were Rome vs. Carthage
First Punic War: Rome won and gained
Sicily
Second Punic War: Rome won and
gained Spain
Rome also defeated Macedonia (Greece),
making it the most powerful force in the
western Mediterranean
Third Punic War: Rome won and gained
Carthage
Rome became the supreme power in the
Mediterranean
Section 3:
The Birth of the
Roman Empire
Social War
Allies grew tired of serving Roman army
and not getting benefits or citizenship
91 BC – Allies rebelled in the Social War
Rome won, but Senate agreed to
grant allies citizenship and political
participation
People throughout Italy began to see
themselves as “Romans”
The First Triumvirate (60 BC)
Triumvirate means “rule of three”
Political alliance
Unofficial reorganization of Rome’s power
structure
All were popular generals:
1. Julius Caesar
2. Gnaeus Pompey
3. Marcus Licinius Crassus
Crassus died in battle
Pompey tried to kick Caesar out of
Rome so he could rule alone
Caesar marched his troops back on
Rome and defeated Pompey
Caesar stood alone as leader of
Rome
Rule of Caesar
44 BC – Senate declared him dictator
for life
Increased Senate to 900 members but
reduced its power
This began the demise of the Roman
Republic and the rise of the Roman
Empire
“Beware the Ides of March”
Caesar became too powerful and
many senators formed a conspiracy
against him
March 15, 44 BC (Ides of March) – the
Senators, including Cassius and Brutus
(Caesar’s friends), assassinated Caesar
at a Senate meeting
The Second Triumvirate
 Formed to avenge Caesar’s murder
1. Octavian (Caesar’s adopted
grandnephew and heir)
2. Marc Antony (general and ally of
Caesar’s)
3. Lepidus (Caesar’s second in
command)
Antony led his army east;
reconquered Syria and Asia Minor
Antony joined Cleopatra in Egypt
Octavian forced Lepidus to retire
Antony and Octavian divided the
Roman world
Octavian declared war on Antony
and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra could not
escape – committed suicide
Octavian now stood alone
Octavian
Determined to avoid Caesar’s fate
He called himself “first citizen”
Given new name of Augustus, “the
revered one”
First Roman emperor
With his reign, Roman Republic
became Roman Empire
Octavian (Augustus)
Octavian
Greatly expanded empire
Established outward façade of a free
Republic and working Senate
In reality, he was an autocratic
dictator – he reduced power of Senate
and assemblies
Always remained a threat that an
emperor would abuse his powers (like
Caesar)
Pax Romana
 200-year period began known as “Roman
Peace”
 Established by Augustus
 Lasted from 27 BC to 180 AD
 Roman empire was mostly free of large-scale
conflict for 200 years
 Augustus died in AD 14
 For next 54 years, relatives of Caesar, the JulioClaudian Emperors, ruled the empire
Tiberius
Caligula
Claudius
Nero
“Five Good Emperors”
Began AD 96
Roman empire was at its height
People of the empire had been
“Romanized” in culture and language
Emperors had complete control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Nerva
Trajan
Hadrian
Antonius Pius
Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius’ death led to civil war
among provinces in AD180
SPQR
 "The Senate and the People of Rome".
 First appears in inscriptions of the Late
Republic, starting in 80 BC
 This signature continued to be used in the
Roman Empire.
 The Romans believed that all authority
came from the people
 During the regime of Benito Mussolini, SPQR
was written on a number of public buildings
and manhole covers in an attempt to
promote his dictatorship as a "New Roman
Empire".
Section 5: The Rise of Christianity
Romans allowed people in their
provinces to practice different
religions, as long as they honored the
gods of Rome and the “divine spirit”
of the emperor
This helped keep peace among
the people
Christianity arose…
Jesus of Nazareth was a Jewish
carpenter and teacher
Jesus taught:
Love God above all else
Love others as themselves
God cares more for people
than for laws and rituals
Jesus was crucified by Pontius Pilate
(Roman governor)around AD 30
Romans feared he would lead an
uprising
He was considered an enemy of the
state
Jesus' resurrection was the central
event that led to the formation of
Christianity
Showed all people could be saved
Christianity spread because…
Life in empire became more
difficult
Christianity appealed to both
rich and poor
Promised hope and freedom
Spread of Christianity
by AD 300 (dark blue) and 600 (light
blue)
Romans outlawed Christianity because:
Recognized that Christians were different
from Jews (not just a Jewish sect)
Christians spoke out against polytheism
Christians converted others
Saw Christianity as an attack on Roman
religion and law
Persecution of Christians
Christians were first targeted for
persecution by the emperor Nero in
64 AD.
A fire broke out in Rome, and
destroyed much of the city.
Nero blamed the Christians and
ordered that they should be rounded
up and killed.
Roman law eventually accepted
Christianity because…
After Five Good Emperors, there was
violence and unrest in the empire
Turned to Christianity for hope
Christian church had become so large
that government couldn’t punish
everyone
AD 312: Emperor Constantine declared his
support for Christianity
AD 337: Constantine was baptized on his
death bed
AD 391: Emperor Theodosius made
Christianity the official religion of the
empire
Section 6: The Fall of the
Western Empire
Problems arose after the death of
Marcus Aurelius (last of the “Five Good
Emperors”):
Rising inflation (economic crisis)
Attacks on borders
Poor leadership
The Germans (Goths, Vandals, Franks)
invaded from the North:
Set up separate kingdoms (many
tribes)
Impossible to rule a united empire
People left for food and safety
Crops destroyed
Schools and libraries destroyed
Emperor Constantine
Became emperor in AD 324
Supported Christianity
Created new capital city in the
east called Constantinople
Empire remained stable for about
50 years after his death
By AD 400, two empires existed –
West and East
There was no single fall of the Roman
Empire.
The West gradually declined.
The East became the new center of
power and wealth
The East remained until AD 1453,
when it was conquered by the
Ottoman Empire (Turks)
Political and Military Weakness
Grew too fast, got too big
Government was designed for a smaller
empire
Corrupt courts
Army interfered with emperor choice
German invasions
Loss of soldiers’ loyalty
Division of empire and growing power of
East
Economic Decline
Defense was expensive
No more expansion meant no
more wealth (plundered war
goods)
Inflation (lack of gold)
Farmers forced to sell farms
High taxes (to pay for army)
Expensive to maintain such a large
empire
Social Change
Division between rich and poor
Loss of moral values
Loss of patriotism
Lack of political honesty (corrupt
emperors)
Rise of Christianity