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Greece & Rome Study Guide
1) What was the structure of the Greek city-states?
-Type of government (oligarchy, monarchy, democracy, and aristocracy), agora, acropolis
2) Which city-state was a militaristic society?
3) What was the center (city) for Hellenistic culture?
-Alexandria, Egypt
4) What form of Roman leader is similar to that of a Greek tyrant?
5) Who were tyrants?
-Leaders who took power (illegally) with help from the lower class
6) What are myths?
-Stories about the gods to make them more relatable to the people
7) How did the Greeks make their gods more relatable?
-By giving them human traits/characteristics (they could love, be angry, etc.)
8) What were epic poems? Who is the most famous Greek writer of epics?
-Long, narrative poems about a hero; Homer
9) Who was a student of Socrates and wrote The Republic?
10) What was Socrates main teaching (not his method, but what did he want others to do)?
-Question everything
11) What took place during the Golden Age of Athens underneath the leadership of Pericles?
-Strengthen democracy, strengthen the empire, and beautify the city (Parthenon)
12) Who tutored Alexander the Great?
13) What were the accomplishments of Alexander the Great?
-Conquered Greece, Persia, Egypt (named pharaoh), and India. Created Hellenistic culture
14) What government was created in Athens?
15) What caused the Greek city-states to be isolated?
-Geography (natural barriers): mountains and seas
16) What major power did the Greeks have to unite in order to fight?
17) What was the major fighting formation of the Greeks?
18) What was the first major victory for the Greeks over the Persians?
19) What took place at the Battle of Thermopylae?
-300 Spartans fought until the very last man in a losing effort against the Persians
20) What were the Twelve Tables?
-Law code during the Roman Republic; everyone was equal under the law
21) Which branch of the republic involved electing tribunes and making laws for the common man?
-Citizen Assemblies
22) Which branch of the republic was in charge of the military and had veto power?
23) Which branch of the government was in charge of the treasury (and taxing)?
24) What were the accomplishments of Constantine?
-Edict of Milan (tolerant of Christianity), first Christian emperor, split the empire, moved the
capital, and won the civil war because of his vision
25) What was the name for the large units within the Roman army?
26) What were the accomplishments of Julius Caesar?
-Consul, conquered several areas of Gaul, hero, took power with the 1st triumvirate, named
dictator (“dictator for life”), and was a reformer
27) What was the immediate cause for the fall of the Western Roman Empire?
-Germanic invasion
28) How did the 2nd triumvirate end?
-Octavian (Augustus) defeating Marc Antony/Cleopatra’s forces at the Battle of Actium; and
then becoming emperor
29) Why was Christianity appealing?
-Spiritual equality, eternal life, hope for the powerless, and a personal relationship with a loving
30) Which emperor made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire?
31) What was the Jewish Diaspora?
-The spreading out of the Jewish people from their homeland to different parts of Europe and
32) What was an economic factor that lead to the fall of the Roman Empire?
-Drained gold & silver reserves, inflation, and high taxes
33) What legacy of the Romans will impact future freedoms in America?
-Roman laws dealing with the rights of citizens
34) What architectural innovation were the Romans known for?
35) What was the cause for Rome to be isolated in its earliest years?
-Geography (natural barriers): mountains and seas
36) What groups were considered the first people of Rome?
-Etruscans, Greeks, and Latins
37) What major power (and general) did the Romans defeat in the Punic Wars?
-Carthage; Hannibal