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list the 3 “g”s
European Exploration—Causes and Effects
Desire for wealth and power. (Gold and Glory)
European explorers hoped to find riches in distant countries
and to discover a sea route to Asia.
Search for spices (nutmeg, ginger, cloves, cinnamon,
pepper, etc.) and luxury goods (silk, gold, silver, jewels, ivory,
porcelains, tea, etc.) from Africa and the East.
Religious aims (God)
 Europeans hoped to spread Christianity to people throughout
the world and to drive Muslims out of other lands.
Renaissance spirit
 Europeans adventurers wanted to test the limits of human
ability and to explore the unknown. Discover far away places
and settle in the new lands.
Improvements in technology
draw a caravel
draw an
Europeans began to build stronger, faster sailing ships
(caravel, a ship with two sails one each for running with the
wind and for sailing into the wind.
draw a compass
The hull design was improved and could ride out ocean
They could also put canons on the decks of these ships).
They developed better navigational instruments (astrolabe,
could tell north and south of the equator by the position of the
magnetic compass, told direction accurately)
more accurate maps with the discovery of how to find the
Immediate Effects
• Sailors learned more about geography (longitude, latitude, new
places, etc.) and improved navigation.
• The Portuguese built plantations and trading posts in West Africa
and many made Africa their home.
did Prince
Henry go
exploring? yes
or no
• Prince Henry of Portugal organized a school for navigation at
Sagres, Portugal and taught navigators how to develop and apply
the new sailing innovations.
• The Portuguese discovered a sea route to India.
• Bartholomew Diaz traveled to the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of
Africa. (1488)
where was da
Gama the 1st
• Columbus was the first European to reach the Americas. (1492)
• Vasco da Gama discovered the route to India and back 27,000
miles (1497-1499)
circle the
country that
got the better
end of the
circle the name
of the treaty
• The Line of Demarcation was established to prevent disputes over
newly discovered lands in the America’s.
• The imaginary line was drawn north to south, through the Atlantic
• Spain was given possession of lands west of that line, while
Portugal could claim lands to the east of the line. (1493)
• Treaty of Tordesillas moved the line of Demarcation west. Portugal
received Brazil as a colony. (1494)
write Magellan
and list where
he was the
first to travel
write Aztecs
and the
write incas and
the conqueror
• Fernando Magellan’s crew sailed around the world (1519-1522)
• He died in the Philippines and his crew finished the trip around the
• Hernando Cortez landed on the shores of Mexico with his
• He claimed the land for Spain.
• Cortés and 600 men reached the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán
• By 1521, they had conquered the Aztec empire and captured
• Conquest was aided by superior weapons and Native American
• European diseases wipe out large numbers of Aztecs
• Francisco Pizarro, marched a small force into South America.
• He conquered Atahualpa and the Inca Empire.(1532)
Long Term Effects
• European nations competed to establish colonies in the Americas
• They expanded their wealth and power. (Gold and Glory)
• Europe established sea trade with India.
circle what
caused the
need to bring in
• The slave trade expanded.
• Epidemics killed most of the native population in the Americas and
created a need for workers.
• Slaves provided a quick and available solution to the need for
• In 1540, about 10,000 slaves per year were brought to the Americans.
• In the 1700’s there were about 70,000 slaves per year.
Triangular Trade Route
list the 3
countries that
made up the
triangular trade
• A network of trading between Europe, Africa, and the Americas made
the Triangular Trade Route.
• The Europeans traded goods to traders on the west coast of Africa in
exchange for captured Africans.
• These Africans were then transported across the Atlantic to the West
Indies and merchants brought goods produced back to Europe.
Columbia Exchange
• The Columbian Exchange, the global transfer of plants, animals,
disease, and food brought together the Eastern and Western
hemispheres and touched, in some way, nearly all the people of the
world. (page 572)
Rise of Capitalism
• Rise of capitalism resulted from the growth of town and city life and
the expansion of trade.
• Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership
and use of capital (goods and services).
Rise of Mercantilism
• Rise of Mercantilism resulted from economic growth and expanding
royal power.
• Rulers encouraged exports (sell products to other countries) and
discouraged imports (buy products from other countries).
• The trade with colonies was expected to supply the home country
with great wealth and new products.