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Transcript
European Exploration—
Motivations, Reasons and
Effects
motivations
1. Desire for wealth and
power. (Gold)


European explorers hoped to find
riches in distant countries and to
discover a sea route to Asia.
Search for spices (nutmeg,
ginger, cloves, cinnamon,
pepper, etc.) and luxury goods
(silk, gold, silver, jewels, ivory,
porcelains, tea, etc.) from Africa
and the East.
motivations
2. Religious aims (God)
 Europeans hoped to spread
Christianity to people
throughout the world and to
drive Muslims out of other
lands.
motivations
3. Renaissance spirit.
(Glory)
 Europeans adventurers
wanted to test the limits of
human ability and to
explore the unknown.
Discover far away places
and settle in the new lands.
Reasons
Improvements in
technology.
 Europeans began to build
stronger, faster sailing ships
(caravel, a ship with two sails
one each for running with the
wind and for sailing into the
wind.)
 The hull design was improved
and could ride out ocean storms.
 They could also put canons on
the decks of these ships).
Reasons
Improvements in
technology.
 They developed better
navigational instruments
(astrolabe, could tell north
and south (Latitude) of the
equator by the position of the
stars
 magnetic compass, told
direction accurately)
 more accurate maps with the
discovery of how to find the
longitude..
Reasons
• Sailors learned more about
geography (longitude, latitude,
new places, etc.) and improved
navigation.
Early exploration
• The Portuguese built plantations
and trading posts in West Africa
and many made Africa their
home.
• Prince Henry of Portugal
organized a school for navigation
at Sagres, Portugal and taught
navigators how to develop and
apply the new sailing innovations.
• The Portuguese discovered a sea
route to India.
• Bartholomew Diaz traveled to the
Cape of Good Hope at the tip of
Africa. (1488)
• Columbus was the first European
to reach the Americas. (1492)
• Vasco da Gama discovered the
route to India and back 27,000
miles (1497-1499)
• The Line of Demarcation was
established to prevent disputes
over newly discovered lands in
the America’s.
• The imaginary line was drawn
north to south, through the
Atlantic Ocean.
• Spain was given possession of
lands west of that line, while
Portugal could claim lands to the
east of the line. (1493)
• Treaty of Tordesillas moved the
line of Demarcation west.
Portugal received Brazil as a
colony. (1494)
• Fernando Magellan’s crew sailed
around the world (1519-1522)
• He died in the Philippines and his
crew finished the trip around the
world.
The Empires in America
before Columbus arrives.
Aztecs & Incas
The Aztec Empire
• Became the greatest empire of
Mesoamerica
• Located around the Valley of Mexico
(Present Day Mexico City)
Teotihuacan, Obsidian, & Sacrificial Alter
1.
Aztecs
• 1200 -1521 AD, originally called the
Mexica took over the Valley of Mexico.
• Founded city Tenochititlan (Capital).
• 5-15 million people.
• Religion very important (polytheistic).
• Worshipped the Sun God.
• Human sacrifice every day.
Inca Empire
• Largest Empire in the Americas.
• Located mainly in the Andes.
• Capital was Cuzco in Southern Peru.
Incas Later On
• 1438, Emperor Pachacuti concurred all of
Peru and spread out the kingdom.
• Around 16 million people.
• Used a type of Socialist government.
• 14,000 miles of road built.
• No writing system.
• Machu Picchu
Emperor Pachacuti, Inca Trail,
Machu Picchu
The Conquests of Mexico and
Peru
• Hernando Cortez landed on the
shores of Mexico with his
conquistadors
• He claimed the land for Spain.
• Cortés and 600 men reached the
Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán
• By 1521, they had conquered the
Aztec empire and captured
Montezuma.
• Conquest was aided by superior
weapons and Native American
allies.
• European diseases wipe out
large numbers of Aztecs
Conquest of the Inca 1531-1534
• Francisco Pizarro, marched a
small force into South America.
• He conquered Atahualpa and the
Inca Empire.(1532)
Impact of European
Colonization
Long Term Effects
• European nations competed to
establish colonies in the
Americas
• They expanded their wealth and
power. (Gold and Glory)
• Europe established sea trade
with India.
Slaves
• The slave trade expanded.
• Epidemics killed most of the
native population in the Americas
and created a need for workers.
• Slaves provided a quick and
available solution to the need for
workers.
• In 1540, about 10,000 slaves per
year were brought to the
Americans.
• In the 1700’s there were about
70,000 slaves per year.
Triangular Trade Route
• A network of trading between Europe,
Africa, and the Americas made the
Triangular Trade Route.
• The Europeans traded goods to traders
on the west coast of Africa in exchange
for captured Africans.
• These Africans were then transported
across the Atlantic to the West Indies
and merchants brought goods
produced back to Europe.
The Colonial Shipping Trade: The
Triangular Trade Routes
Columbia Exchange
• The Columbian Exchange, the
global transfer of plants, animals,
disease, and food brought
together the Eastern and
Western hemispheres and
touched, in some way, nearly all
the people of the world.
Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
small pox
All of the following were reasons for
European exploration EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
Desire to obtain more wealth
Desire to spread the Christian religion
Desire to encounter new cultures
Desire to make a name for themselves
The caravel was a new type of
cannon that helped the ships fight
off attacks.
A. True
B. False
What were the Europeans looking
for when they started the Age of
Exploration?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A sea route to the ports of Asia
The city of Atlantis
New land to cultivate
New cultures that they could learn from
Which of the following inventions is
NOT correctly paired with its use.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Astrolabe/Used stars to find latitude location
Compass/Helps find direction
Improved Hull design/Carry more cargo
Caravel/Allow ship to go with or against wind