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Chapter 6 The Age of Exploration Section 1: Exploration and Expansion • Reasons for Exploration – Marco Polo wrote about his expeditions to China in his book The Travels. This story of the exotic East fascinated individuals who wanted to explore and experience it for themselves. – Merchants wanted to expand trade, especially for the spices of the East. – Individuals wanted to convert the natives to Christianity. Portuguese Trading Empire • Portugal took the lead in exploration. – Explored the coast of Africa and found gold – southern coast of West Africa is known as the Gold Coast – Vasco da Gama rounded the tip of Africa, known as the Cape of Good Hope, and cut across the Indian Ocean to the coast of India. – Launched expeditions to China and the Spice Islands and took control of the spice trade. Voyages to the Americas • • • Christopher Columbus believed that he could reach Asia by sailing west instead of east around Africa. – In 1492, he reached the Americas, where he explored the coastline of Cuba – In 4 trips, he reached all the major islands of the Caribbean and parts of Central America • He called it the Indies John Cabot explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian, wrote about the new lands he saw. Later called America after him. Spain • • • The conquistadors of Spain took control of the Americas shortly after landing there. – In 3 years, Hernan Cortes overthrew the Aztec Empire in Central America. – Francisco Pizarro took control of the Incan Empire in Peru. – Within 30 years, Spain controlled the western part of Latin America (Mexico, Central, and South America) Spanish forced the Native Americans to work on sugar plantations and in gold and silver mines. Forced labor, starvation, and disease killed millions of Native Americans – Smallpox, measles, and typhus were diseases they did not have a natural resistance Line of Demarcation • Portugal & Spain both begin to lay claim to newly discovered lands • The Pope helped the nations to reach a compromise • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) – Created an imaginary line from North to South along line of longitude – Unclaimed territory East of line went to Portugal – Unclaimed territory West of line went to Spain – This gave Portugal control of route around Africa & Spain almost all of the Americas. Impact of Trade • Columbian Exchange – exchange of goods between the Old and New Worlds • Dutch formed the East and West India Companies (East Co. in India and West Co. in America) • Colonies and trading posts established in the Americas – They were important sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods **end of notes** Caravels • • • • • • Triangular-shaped sails More manuverable Faster Had weapons Larger cargo holds Sat deeper in water Section 2: Africa in an Age of Transition • Slavery changed dramatically with the discovery of the Americas in the 1490s and the planting of sugarcane. • Labor was needed on the large plantations established in the Americas. • First ship of slaves arrived in 1518. – Triangular Trade – 10 million slaves in 300 years Effects of Slave Trade • Prior to the slave trade, African slaves were usually prisoners of war or individuals that owed a debt. When Europeans began demanding more slaves, some African tribes attacked other tribes/villages to capture slaves to sell. – While it was a source of income for some tribes, it led to the depopulation of some areas and deprived many communities of their youngest and strongest men and women. • Europeans introduced new foods to the African tribes such as sweet potatoes, corn, and peanuts. • Missionaries were established in Africa to spread Christianity. Section 3: Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade • In 1511, the Portuguese Moluccas, known as the Spice Islands. • However, they would soon lose control to the English and Dutch, who were better financed. • The Dutch would eventually drive the English out • The mainland states were able to resist b/c they had strong monarchies that resisted foreign intrusion. • Islam and Christianity would spread throughout the nonmainland states and the Philippines.