Download Hardy Weinberg Principle (equilibrium)

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Allele frequencies will remain constant unless one
If there is no change, there is no evolving.
or more factors cause the frequencies to change.
Natural selection acts on the range of
phenotypes in a population.
Evolution occurs as a population’s genes and
their frequencies change over time.
All of the alleles of a population’s genes
together make up a gene pool.
Allele frequency - % of any specific allele in
the gene pool.
Genetic equilibrium – a population in which
the frequency of alleles remains the same
over generations.
Mutations are one cause of genetic change.
Lethal mutations disappear quickly, but
mutations that cause a useful variation
become part of the gene pool
Genetic drift – the alteration of allele frequencies by
chance events.
Gene flow – transport of genes into or out of a
population by migrating individuals.
Genetic drift, gene flow, and mutations can greatly
affect small populations.
Natural selection is usually the most significant cause
of changes in any gene pool.
Some variations increase or decrease an
organism’s chance of survival in an
Variations are controlled by alleles.
Allelic frequencies in a gene pool will change
due to natural selection of variations.
If conditions are not met the genetic
equilibrium is disrupted –
*population evolves and changes*
If conditions are met the genetic equilibrium
stays the same–
*population does not evolve*
Genotype proportions remain constant –
calculated from allele frequencies
P+Q = 1 or 100 percent
(allele frequencies)
P2 + 2PQ + Q2 = 1 or 100 percent
(genotype frequencies)
P = frequency of the dominant allele in the population
Q = frequency of the recessive allele in the population
P2 = percentage of homozygous dominant individuals
Q2 = percentage of homozygous recessive individuals
2PQ = percentage of heterozygous individuals
If 98 out of 200 individuals in a population
express the recessive phenotype, what
percent of the population are
homozygous dominant?