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Greece Benchmark Review
Greece’s Geography
Greece is a mountainous land with a
lot of water surrounding it.
Because of the mountains and water,
communities were isolated from each
other
Different city-states and types of
government developed from this
isolation.
Types of Government
Greek governments developed in a
predictable order: MOTD- Monarchy,
Oligarchy, Tyranny, Democracy
Tyrants were popular because they
gave more rights to the poor.
In Athens, only free men could speak
in the Assembly.
Athens
 Athens’ countryside didn’t provide enough
food, so Athenians traded.
 In Athens, the Council suggested laws and
the Assembly approved the laws.
 Athletic events were held to honor gods
and goddesses. Gods were believed to live
on Mt. Olympus.
 Philosophers like Socrates encouraged
people to question their beliefs.
Sparta
 Spartans got land by conquering
neighbors and taking their crops.
 Power in Sparta was held by the Council of
Elders.
 Sparta educated boys and girls to become
soldiers.
 Spartan women had more rights than
Athenian women- they could own their
own land.
The Persian Wars
During the Persian Wars, the Persians
tried to take over Greece.
Greek city-states fought back by
uniting. Athens and Sparta became
allies.
The Greeks beat the Persians. The
Persian Wars are important because
they preserved Greek independence.
Alexander the Great
 Sparta defeated Athens in the
Peloponnesian War. Alexander helped the
Greeks by focusing their attention on a
common enemy.
 Alexander founded cities like Alexandria to
spread Greek culture. He accepted many
religions to gain loyalty.
 After Alexander’s death, his empire was
divided into three kingdoms.
Greek Contributions
The Greeks made contributions in
many different areas.
Many English words contain Greek
roots. For example, “alphabet”.
Greek democracy had a tremendous
impact on the government of the
United States.
You are going to rock the
benchmark exam!