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Greece Benchmark Review Greece’s Geography Greece is a mountainous land with a lot of water surrounding it. Because of the mountains and water, communities were isolated from each other Different city-states and types of government developed from this isolation. Types of Government Greek governments developed in a predictable order: MOTD- Monarchy, Oligarchy, Tyranny, Democracy Tyrants were popular because they gave more rights to the poor. In Athens, only free men could speak in the Assembly. Athens Athens’ countryside didn’t provide enough food, so Athenians traded. In Athens, the Council suggested laws and the Assembly approved the laws. Athletic events were held to honor gods and goddesses. Gods were believed to live on Mt. Olympus. Philosophers like Socrates encouraged people to question their beliefs. Sparta Spartans got land by conquering neighbors and taking their crops. Power in Sparta was held by the Council of Elders. Sparta educated boys and girls to become soldiers. Spartan women had more rights than Athenian women- they could own their own land. The Persian Wars During the Persian Wars, the Persians tried to take over Greece. Greek city-states fought back by uniting. Athens and Sparta became allies. The Greeks beat the Persians. The Persian Wars are important because they preserved Greek independence. Alexander the Great Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War. Alexander helped the Greeks by focusing their attention on a common enemy. Alexander founded cities like Alexandria to spread Greek culture. He accepted many religions to gain loyalty. After Alexander’s death, his empire was divided into three kingdoms. Greek Contributions The Greeks made contributions in many different areas. Many English words contain Greek roots. For example, “alphabet”. Greek democracy had a tremendous impact on the government of the United States. You are going to rock the benchmark exam!