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Warring City-States
Section 2
p. 115-119
1. The ______________ was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece. The ________________ is the public center of a citystate. The ____________________is he highest point in elevation in a Greek city-state.
2. Some city states had a ___________________, rule by a king, queen, or royal family. Some had an __________________, rule by
a a small group of land-owning wealthy families. Others had an ____________, rule by a few powerful people
3. A New Kind of Army Emerges
During the Dorian Age only the rich could afford expensive _____________ weapons and shields. __________ weapons are cheaper
than bronze.
4. Foot soldiers were called _______________. Their fighting formation was called the _______________. It became the most
powerful fighting force in the ancient world
5. Powerful individuals called _______________ gained control of the government by appealing to the _______ and discontented.
6. Unlike other Greek city-states, ____________ built a military government. Sparta conquered ____________ around 725 BC
7. Each year the Spartans demanded _______________of the helots yearly crop. Around _________ BC the Messenians revolted.
Messenians outnumbered the Spartans ___________ to one.
8. Two groups governed Sparta, An ________________ – all free adult males. A ______________ ___ __________________
proposed laws on which the assembly voted. Five elected ____________ carried out the laws passes by the Assembly. Two
______________ ruled over Sparta’s military.
9. Military training for men began at age _____________. Boys left home and moved into ______________. Girls could not vote,
but had more _____________ than women in other Greek city-states.
10. Athenians avoided the power struggles between rich and poor by starting a __________________, rule by the people. Only free
adult ____________ counted as citizens and were allowed to vote. ____________ made up 1/3rd of the population.
11. In 621 BC ____________ wrote the first Greek legal code. It addressed ____________ ____________ in which poor farmers
worked as slaves to pay debts. ___________________ outlawed debt slavery
12. __________________seized power in 546 BC after the death of Solon. He became one of Athens first tyrants. Cleisthenes
reorganized the Assembly to break up the power of the _________________. He created the Council of ______________
_________________, they were chosen by lot and proposed laws.
Only 1/5th of Athenians were actual citizens who could vote
13. The Persian Wars began in _________ on the coast of Anatolia where Greeks had established _________.
Persians conquered the area in 520 BC.
14. The Persian fleet carried 25,000 men across the Aegean and landed at ________________. The Greeks charged and defeated the
Persians. ___________ Persians and ________ Athenians were killed. A runner was sent from the battle sight to take message back
to Athens. __________________ ran the distance, delivered the message, then collapsed and died
15. Thermopylae and Salamis -- ______________ – son of Darius tried to crush Greece
Greeks were divided about what to do. At the battle of _______________, a narrow mountain pass, the outnumbered Greeks fought
for three days before a traitor told the Persians about a secret path around the cliffs. 300 ______________ soldiers were killed
16. ___________________ was a sea victory for Athens. Xerxes watches as 1/3rd of his fleet is sunk. The remainder of the Persian
army is defeated by Spartans at the Battle of ______________ in 479 BC
Consequences of the Persian Wars
17. Athens used its powerful __________ to control the other members of the Delian League